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C V4.0/V4.2 Function Glossary


Software development in C uses the Mosaic IDE Integrated Development Environment. The IDE provides a full-featured text editor, ANSI C compiler, and customized terminal for rapid code downloads and interactive debugging sessions with the 68HC11 processor on the controller board. This glossary defines all the customized C functions that speed programming of your application software.

Glossary entries are alphabetized in ASCII Order:
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Abort()

void Abort(void)

If the CUSTOM_ABORT flag is true (non-zero), executes the abort routine whose xcfa (32-bit extended code field address) is stored in the user variable UABORT, and then returns to the routine that called ABORT. If CUSTOM_ABORT is false (zero), executes the default routine SysAbort() which clears the data and return stacks, and sets the page to the default page (0). If an autostart vector has been installed [see Autostart() and PriorityAutostart()], SysAbort() executes the specified routine; otherwise it executes QUIT which sets the execution mode and enters the QED-Forth monitor. If the stack pointers do not point to common RAM, a COLD restart is initiated.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: ABORT
Header file: qedsys.h

 
ABS()

ABS(num)

Returns the absolute value of num; the input can be of any type. This macro is defined as:

#define ABS(A)  (((A) >=0) ? (A) : -(A))

Type: macro
Header file: utility.h

 
Activate()

void Activate(void(*action)(), uint actionPage, xaddr taskBase)

Sets up the specified routine on the specified actionPage as the action function of the task whose TASKBASE address is taskBase, and leaves the specified task AWAKE so that it will be entered on the next pass through the round robin task list. For application programs that are compiled on a single page, the macro form ACTIVATE() is highly recommended; see its glossary entry for a complete description of what this routine does. For programs whose code occupies multiple pages of memory on the QED Board, this functional form of Activate() allows the page of the action routine (actionPage) to be specified.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: ACTIVATE
Header file: mtasker.h

 
ACTIVATE()

void ACTIVATE(void(*action)(), int* task_base_addr)

Sets up the specified routine as the action function of the task whose TASKBASE address equals task_base_addr, and leaves the specified task AWAKE so that it will be entered on the next pass through the round robin task list. The ACTIVATE() macro may be used in all applications whose code compiles onto a single page of the QED Board; for multipage applications, see the functional form named Activate() which allows you to specify the page of the action routine.

ACTIVATE() assumes that the specified task has already been declared using a TASK statement and added to the task list by BUILD_C_TASK(). The task's action function is typically either an infinite loop or a finite routine that ends with a Halt() instruction (which is itself an infinite loop). ACTIVATE() buries a call to Halt() in the return stack frame to ensure graceful termination of a finite activation routine. If cooperative multitasking is used exclusively (that is, if the timeslicer is not used), then the loop of the action function must contain at least one Pause() statement, or invoke a function that in turn executes Pause(). Otherwise, no task switching occurs. If timeslicing is used, incorporation of Pause() statements in the loop of the action function is optional. The typical form of an action function is:

void action_name(void)
   {   while(1)
      {   statements to be executed infinitely;
         Pause();
         statements to be executed infinitely;
      }
   }

or:

void action_name(void)
   {   statements to be executed;
      Pause();
      statements to be executed;
      Halt();
   }

Once the action routine has been defined, the task can be named, built and activated as follows:

TASK  ReadInputTask;      // name and allocate the task area
BUILD_C_TASK(0,0,&ReadInputTask);   // build the task in RAM
ACTIVATE(action_name, &ReadInputTask);   // activate the task

Note that action_name is passed without parentheses to the ACTIVATE routine; this tells the compiler that action_name is a pointer to a function. The turnkey application program in the documentation provides working examples of how to define, build and activate tasks in a multitasking program.

See also TASK and BUILD_C_TASK().

Type: macro
Related Forth function: Activate()
Header file: mtasker.h

 
AD12Multiple()

void AD12Multiple(xaddr buffer, uint Interval, uint NumSamples, int flag, uint channel)

Acquires NumSamples samples from the 12 bit analog-to-digital (A/D) converter and stores the samples as sequential 16 bit values starting at the specified buffer xaddress. [For an automated approach to storing samples in an array in paged memory, see the glossary entries for DIM_AD12_BUFFER() and AD12ToBuffer()].

The Interval parameter specifies the timing of the samples, flag specifies the conversion mode, and channel specifies the channel number of the A/D (0 ≤ channel ≤ 7). The meaning of the flag is as follows:

   Flag    Type of conversion
   -1      single ended, unipolar
    0      differential, unipolar
    1      single ended, bipolar
    2      differential, bipolar

Single-ended sampling means that the input voltage of the specified channel is referenced to VRL which is typically analog ground. Differential sampling means that the voltage input of the specified channel's partner is subtracted from the voltage of the specified channel and the resulting voltage is digitized by the A/D. The pairing of partner channels is as follows: [0,1], [2,3], [4,5], and [6,7]. Unipolar sampling means that the input is a positive voltage that swings from VRL to VRH (typically 0 to +5 V), while bipolar sampling means that the input is interpreted as a signed 12 bit representation of an input that swings from -VRH to +VRH (typically -5V to +5V). Note that conversion of inputs more negative than -4.0 V may require an external -5V supply connected to pin 39 of the Analog I/O connector. The data transfer uses the SPI (serial peripheral interface); use InitAD12andDAC() to initialize the SPI interface. To ensure proper operation in a multitasking environment, executes GET(SPI_RESOURCE) before writing to the DAC and RELEASE(SPI_RESOURCE) before terminating. If the specified xaddr is in common memory, the first sample is taken after 128 µsec and subsequent samples are taken every (27.5+2.5*u1) µsec, where u1 is the specified timing parameter passed to this routine. If the specified xaddr is in paged memory, the first sample is taken after 138 µsec and subsequent samples are taken every (50+2.5*u1) µsec. Of course, the operation of interrupts (including timesliced multitasking) will affect these sampling times. For a faster version suitable for non-multitasking applications, see FastAD12Sample().

See also AD12Sample(), DIM_AD12_BUFFER(), AD12ToBuffer() and InitAD12andDAC().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: A/D12.MULTIPLE
Header file: analog.h

 
AD12Sample()

int AD12Sample(int flag, uint channel)

Returns a single sample u from the 12 bit analog to digital (A/D) converter. n specifies the channel number of the A/D (0 ≤ channel ≤ 7). The meaning of the flag is as follows:

   Flag value   Type of conversion
   -1      single ended, unipolar
    0      differential, unipolar
    1      single ended, bipolar
    2      differential, bipolar

Single-ended sampling means that the input voltage of the specified channel is referenced to VRL which is typically analog ground. Differential sampling means that the voltage input of the specified channel's partner is subtracted from the voltage of the specified channel and the resulting voltage is digitized by the A/D. The pairing of partner channels is as follows: [0,1], [2,3], [4,5], and [6,7]. Unipolar sampling means that the input is a positive voltage that swings from VRL to VRH (typically 0 to +5 V), while bipolar sampling means that the input is interpreted as a signed 12 bit representation of an input that swings from -VRH to +VRH (typically -5V to +5V). Note that conversion of inputs more negative than -4.0 V may require an external -5V supply connected to pin 39 of the Analog I/O connector. The data transfer uses the SPI (serial peripheral interface); use InitA/D12andDAC() to initialize the SPI interface. To ensure proper operation in a multitasking environment, this routine executes GET(SPI_RESOURCE) before reading the A/D and RELEASE(SPI_RESOURCE) before terminating. Executes in 158 µsec. For a faster version suitable for non-multitasking applications, see FastAD12Sample().

See also FastAD12Multiple(), AD12Multiple(), and InitA/D12andDAC().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: A/D12.SAMPLE
Header file: analog.h

 
AD12ToBuffer()

void AD12ToBuffer(FORTH_ARRAY* array_ptr, uint Interval, uint NumSamples, int flag, uint channel)

Acquires NumSamples samples from the 12 bit analog-to-digital (A/D) converter and stores the samples as sequential 16 bit values in the specified Forth array in paged memory. The acquired readings may then be accessed using the ARRAYFETCH() macro. AD12ToBuffer() assumes that DIM_AD12_BUFFER() has already been executed to set up the Forth array buffer. The Interval parameter specifies the timing of the samples, flag specifies the conversion mode, and channel specifies the channel number of the A/D (0 ≤ channel ≤ 7). The meaning of the flag is as follows:

   Flag value   Type of conversion
   -1      single ended, unipolar
    0      differential, unipolar
    1      single ended, bipolar
    2      differential, bipolar

See the glossary entry for AD12Multiple() for a discussion of the flag meanings. The Interval input parameter specifies the timing of the samples; see the glossary entry for AD12Multiple() for detailed timing specifications. The data transfer uses the SPI (serial peripheral interface); use InitAD12andDAC() to initialize the SPI interface. To ensure proper operation in a multitasking environment, executes GET(SPI_RESOURCE) before writing to the DAC and RELEASE(SPI_RESOURCE) before terminating.

Example of use:

// **** Initializations (performed only once at system startup): ****
#define MAXSAMPLES   100
INIT_DEFAULT_HEAP();   // ensure valid heap to hold array      InitAD12andDAC();
FORTH_ARRAY   acquired_data;
DIM_AD12_BUFFER(&acquired_data, MAXSAMPLES);
// **** Now perform the conversions ****
AD12ToBuffer(&acquired_data, 0, MAXSAMPLES, -1, 5);
// *********************

This example acquires 100 unipolar single-ended samples (because the flag equals -1) at the maximum sampling rate (because the timing interval equals 0) and stores them into the acquired_data array. Note that the AD12ToBuffer() routine can be called repeatedly to update the contents of the array. To fetch the sample whose index is 5 (that is, the 6th sample taken), you can execute:

int  the_sample;
the_sample = ARRAYFETCH(int, 5, 0, &acquired_data);

Note that the data index (5) appears as the row index, and 0 appears as the column index in the parameter list for ARRAYFETCH().

Type: C function
Header file: analog.h

 
AD8Multiple()

void AD8Multiple(xaddr buffer, uint Interval, uint NumSamples, uint channel)

Acquires NumSamples samples from the 8 bit analog to digital (A/D) converter in the 68HC11 and stores the samples as sequential unsigned 8 bit values starting at the specified buffer xaddress. [For an automated approach to storing samples in an array in paged memory, see the glossary entries for DIM_AD8_BUFFER() and AD8ToBuffer()].

The channel parameter specifies the channel number of the A/D (0 ≤ channel ≤ 7). To ensure proper operation in a multitasking environment, this routine executes GET(AD8_RESOURCE) before reading the A/D and RELEASE(AD8_RESOURCE) before terminating. If the specified xaddr is in common memory, the first sample is taken after 86 µsec and subsequent samples are taken every (10+2.5*u1) µsec, where u1 is the specified timing parameter passed to this routine. If the specified xaddr is in paged memory, the first sample is taken after 81 µsec and subsequent samples are taken every (32.5+2.5*u1) µsec. Of course, the operation of interrupts (including timesliced multitasking) will affect these sampling times. For a faster version suitable for non-multitasking applications, see FastAD8Multiple().

See also AD8Sample(), FastAD8Sample(), and A/D8.ON.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: A/D8.MULTIPLE
Header file: analog.h

 
AD8Off()

void AD8Off(void)

Turns off the 68HC11's on-chip 8 bit analog to digital (A/D) convertor by clearing the ADPU bit in the processor's OPTION register. The 8 bit A/D is initialized to the off state upon every reset or restart.

See also AD8On().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: A/D8.OFF
Header file: analog.h

 
AD8On()

void AD8On(void)

Turns on the 68HC11's on-chip 8 bit analog to digital (A/D) convertor by setting the ADPU bit in the processor's OPTION register, and waits 100 microseconds for the A/D to stabilize. Also initializes AD8_RESOURCE to zero. This routine must be executed after a reset or restart before using the 8 bit A/D.

See also AD8Off().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: A/D8.ON
Header file: analog.h

 
AD8Sample()

uchar AD8Sample(uint channel )

Returns a single sample byte from the specified channel (0 ≤ channel ≤ 7) of the 8 bit analog to digital (A/D) converter in the 68HC11. To ensure proper operation in a multitasking environment, this routine executes GET(AD8_RESOURCE) before reading the A/D and RELEASE(AD8_RESOURCE) before terminating. This routine executes in 93 microseconds. For a faster version suitable for non-multitasking applications, see FastAD8Sample().

See also FastAD8Multiple(), AD8Multiple(), and AD8On().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: A/D8.SAMPLE
Header file: analog.h

 
AD8ToBuffer()

void AD8ToBuffer(FORTH_ARRAY* array_ptr, uint Interval, uint NumSamples, uint channel)

Acquires NumSamples samples from the 8 bit analog-to-digital (A/D) converter and stores the samples as sequential 8 bit values in the specified Forth array in paged memory. The acquired readings may then be accessed using the ARRAYFETCH() macro. AD8ToBuffer() assumes that DIM_AD8_BUFFER() has already been executed to set up the Forth array buffer. The Interval parameter specifies the timing of the samples (see the glossary entry for AD8Multiple() for detailed timing specifications), and channel specifies the channel number of the A/D (0 ≤ channel ≤ 7).

Example of use:

// **** Initializations (performed only once at system startup): ****
#define MAXSAMPLES   100
INIT_DEFAULT_HEAP();   // ensure valid heap to hold array
AD8On();
FORTH_ARRAY acquired_data;
DIM_AD8_BUFFER(&acquired_data, MAXSAMPLES);   // 1 column
// **** Now perform the conversions ****
AD8ToBuffer(&acquired_data, 0, MAXSAMPLES, 5);
// ***************

This example acquires 100 samples at the maximum sampling rate (because the timing interval equals 0) and stores them into the acquired_data array. Note that the AD8ToBuffer() routine can be called repeatedly to update the contents of the array. To fetch the sample whose index is 5 (that is, the 6th sample taken), you can execute:

int  the_sample;
the_sample = ARRAYFETCH(uchar, 5, 0, &acquired_data);

Note that the data index (5) appears as the row index, and 0 appears as the column index in the parameter list for ARRAYFETCH().

Type: C function
Header file: analog.h

 
AD8_RESOURCE

AD8_RESOURCE

A constant that returns the address of the resource variable associated with the 8 bit analog to digital (AD8) convertor. Should be accessed by the routines GET(), TRY_TO_GET() and RELEASE(). Initialized to zero by AD8On() and at each reset or restart. AD8_RESOURCE is automatically invoked by many of the AD8 device driver functions and macros.

See also RESOURCE.

Type: macro constant
Related Forth function: A/D8.RESOURCE
Header file: mtasker.h

 
AddXaddrOffset()

xaddr AddXaddrOffset(xaddr baseAddr, long offset)

Adds the specified signed offset to baseAddr and returns the resulting address. Note that in the QED Board's paged memory, the address immediately following 0x7FFF is address 0000 on the following page.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: XD+
Header file: xmem.h

 
ARRAYBASE()

xaddr ARRAYBASE(FORTH_ARRAY* array_ptr)

Returns the base address (that is, the address of the first element) of the specified array. Returns zero if the array is undimensioned. No error checking is performed.

Example of use:

To define an array of unsigned longs named MyArray with 3 rows and 5 columns, execute:

FORTH_ARRAY  Myarray;
DIM(ulong, 3, 5, &Myarray);

Now to assign the base address of the array to a variable, execute:

static xaddr  Myarray_base_address;
Myarray_base_address = ARRAYBASE(&Myarray);

Note that the & (address-of) operator in front of the array's name tells the compiler that a pointer is being passed. If you forget the & operator, the compiler will warn you that you are attempting to pass an entire structure (the array's parameter field structure) as an argument to a function.

See the FORTH_ARRAY glossary entry for a description of how to define an array and its corresponding array_ptr.

See also FORTH_ARRAY, DIM(), ARRAYSTORE() and ARRAYFETCH().

Type: macro
Related Forth function: [0]
Header file: array.h

 
ArrayBase()

xaddr ArrayBase(FORTH_ARRAY* array_ptr, uint pfa_page)

A subsidiary Forth function called by the recommended macro ARRAYBASE(); see ARRAYBASE().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: [0]
Header file: array.h

 
ARRAYFETCH()

ulong ARRAYFETCH(type, uint row, uint col, FORTH_ARRAY* array_ptr)

Fetches the contents of the element at row, col in the specified 2-dimensional array. The size of the data that is fetched from the array may be 1 byte, 2 bytes, or 4 bytes depending upon the number of bytes per element of the array as specified by the DIM() command. The "type" parameter passed to the function causes the specified type-cast to be performed on the fetched data; this is necessary to inform the compiler of the type of the data stored in the array. Examples of valid "type" parameters are standard identifiers and predefined types such as:

int      unsigned int      uint
char      unsigned char   uchar
long      unsigned long   ulong

Typically, the specified type corresponds to the type of the data stored in the array. Note that the uint, uchar, and ulong types are defined in the types.h file. For floating point data, use FARRAYFETCH(). There is an unchecked error if the specified array does not have 2 dimensions or if the number of bytes per element does not equal 1, 2, or 4. If UDEBUG is true (its default state after a COLD startup) and if the indices are out of range, Abort() is called.

Example of use:

To define an array of unsigned longs named MyArray with 3 rows and 5 columns, execute:

FORTH_ARRAY  Myarray;
DIM(ulong, 3, 5, &Myarray);

Now to fetch the contents of the item at row=1, column=2 into a variable, execute:

static ulong  the_contents;
the_contents = ARRAYFETCH(1,2,&Myarray);

Note that the & (address-of) operator in front of the array's name tells the compiler that a pointer is being passed. If you forget the & operator, the compiler will warn you that you are attempting to pass an entire structure (the array's parameter field structure) as an argument to a function.

See the FORTH_ARRAY glossary entry for a description of how to define an array and its corresponding array_ptr.

See also FORTH_ARRAY, DIM(), FARRAYFETCH() and ARRAYSTORE().

Type: macro
Related Forth function: ArrayFetch()
Header file: array.h

 
ArrayFetch()

ulong ArrayFetch(uint row, uint col, FORTH_ARRAY* array_ptr, uint pfa_page)

A subsidiary function called by the recommended ARRAYFETCH() macro; see ARRAYFETCH().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: 2ARRAY.FETCH
Header file: array.h

 
ARRAYMEMBER()

xaddr ARRAYMEMBER(uint row, uint col, FORTH_ARRAY* array_ptr)

Returns the 32-bit extended address of the element at the specified row and column in the 2-dimensional array specified by array_ptr. If UDEBUG is true (its default state after a COLD startup) and if the indices are out of range, calls Abort(). Example of use:

FORTH_ARRAY  Myarray;   // define an array named Myarray
DIM(ulong, 3, 5, &Myarray);   // dimension it as 3 rows by 5 columns

To calculate the extended address of the element at row=0, column = 1, execute:

static xaddr  element_address;
element_address = ARRAYMEMBER( 0, 1, &Myarray);

element_address could now be passed as a parameter to FetchLong() or StoreLong() to access the array member. Note that ARRAYFETCH() and ARRAYSTORE() provide a more direct means for fetching from and storing to an array element. Caution: recall that Forth function calls cannot be nested, so it is not legal to use ARRAYMEMBER() as an input parameter for another function such as StoreLong(). Rather, the return value of ARRAYMEMBER() must be saved in a variable which in turn is passed as a parameter to another Forth function.

Type: macro
Related Forth function: M[]
Header file: array.h

 
ArrayMember()

xaddr ArrayMember(uint row, uint col, FORTH_ARRAY* array_ptr, uint pfa_page)

A subsidiary function called by the recommended macro ARRAYMEMBER(); see ARRAYMEMBER().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: M[]
Header file: array.h

 
ARRAYSIZE()

uint ARRAYSIZE(FORTH_ARRAY* array_ptr)

A macro that returns the number of elements d (not the number of bytes!) in the Forth array designated by array_ptr. An unpredictable result is returned if the array is not dimensioned.

Example of use:

FORTH_ARRAY  Myarray;   // define an array named Myarray
DIM(ulong, 3, 5, &Myarray);   // dimension it as 3 rows by 5 columns
static uint  size_of_the_array;
size_of_the_array = ARRAYSIZE(&Myarray);

See the FORTH_ARRAY glossary entry for a description of how to define an array and its corresponding array_ptr.

See also DIM().

Type: macro
Related Forth name: ?ARRAY.SIZE
Header file: array.h

 
ARRAYSTORE()

void ARRAYSTORE(ulong value, uint row, uint col, FORTH_ARRAY* array_ptr)

Stores the specified value at row, col in the 2-dimensional FORTH_ARRAY specified by array_ptr. The size of the data that is stored to the array may be 1 byte, 2 bytes, or 4 bytes depending upon the number of bytes per element of the array as specified by the DIM() command. Valid data types for value include signed and unsigned char, int and long. To store a floating point value, use FARRAYSTORE(). There is an unchecked error if the specified array does not have 2 dimensions or if the number of bytes per element does not equal 1, 2, or 4.

Example of use:

To define an array of unsigned longs named MyArray with 3 rows and 5 columns, execute:

FORTH_ARRAY  Myarray;
DIM(ulong, 3, 5, &Myarray);

Now to store 0x12345 into the element at row=1, column=2 into a variable, execute:

ARRAYSTORE(0x12345, 1,2,&Myarray);

Note that the & (address-of) operator in front of the array's name tells the compiler that a pointer is being passed. If you forget the & operator, the compiler will warn you that you are attempting to pass an entire structure (the array's parameter field structure) as an argument to a function.

See the FORTH_ARRAY glossary entry for a description of how to define an array and its corresponding array_ptr.

See also FORTH_ARRAY, DIM(), FARRAYSTORE() and ARRAYFETCH().

Type: macro
Related Forth function: ArrayStore()
Header file: array.h

 
ArrayStore()

void ArrayStore(ulong value, uint row, uint col, FORTH_ARRAY* array_ptr, uint pfa_page)

A subsidiary Forth function called by the recommended macro ARRAYSTORE(); see ARRAYSTORE().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: 2ARRAY.STORE
Header file: array.h

 
AskKey()

int AskKey(void)

Returns a flag indicating receipt of a character. If flag equals -1, a character has been received; if the flag equals 0 (false), no character has been received. Executes GET(SERIAL) and, depending on the value in SERIAL_ACCESS, may execute RELEASE(SERIAL). AskKey() is a vectored routine that executes the function whose xcfa (32-bit code field address) is stored in the user variable UASK_KEY. Thus the programmer may install a different routine to tailor the behavior of AskKey() to the application's needs. For example, AskKey() could access a serial port other than that on the 68HC11 chip, or different tasks could use different AskKey() routines.

See also Key(), AskKey1() and AskKey2(), _peekTerminal(), and SERIAL_ACCESS.

Type: C function
Related Forth function name: ?KEY
Header file: comm.h

 
AskKey1()

int AskKey1(void)

Returns a flag indicating whether a character has been received on the primary serial port (serial1) associated with the 68HC11's on-chip hardware UART. If a character has been received a flag equal to -1 is returned; otherwise a false flag (=0) is returned. AskKey1() is the default AskKey() routine installed in the UASK_KEY user variable after the special cleanup mode is invoked, or if Seral1AtStartup has been executed. If the value in SERIAL_ACCESS is RELEASE_AFTER_LINE, AskKey1() does not GET(SERIAL1_RESOURCE) or RELEASE(SERIAL1_RESOURCE). If SERIAL_ACCESS contains RELEASE_ALWAYS, AskKey1() executes GET(SERIAL1_RESOURCE) and RELEASE(SERIAL1_RESOURCE). If SERIAL_ACCESS contains RELEASE_NEVER, AskKey1() GETs but does not RELEASE() the SERIAL1_RESOURCE.

See also SERIAL_ACCESS, AskKey(), UASK_KEY, AskKey2().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: ?KEY1
Header file: comm.h

 
AskKey2()

int AskKey2(void)

Returns a flag indicating whether a character has been received on the on the secondary serial port (serial2). The serial2 port is supported by QED-Forth's software UART using hardware pins PA3 (input) and PA4 (output). If a character has been received a flag equal to -1 is returned; otherwise a false flag (=0) is returned. AskKey2() can be made the default AskKey() routine installed in the UASK_KEY user variable after each reset or restart by executing Serial2AtStartup(). If the value in SERIAL_ACCESS is RELEASE_AFTER_LINE, AskKey2() does not GET(SERIAL2_RESOURCE) or RELEASE(SERIAL2_RESOURCE). If SERIAL_ACCESS contains RELEASE_ALWAYS, AskKey2() executes GET(SERIAL2_RESOURCE) and RELEASE(SERIAL2_RESOURCE). If SERIAL_ACCESS contains RELEASE_NEVER, AskKey2() GETs but does not RELEASE() the SERIAL2_RESOURCE.

See also SERIAL_ACCESS, AskKey(), UASK_KEY, AskKey1().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: ?KEY2
Header file: comm.h

 
AskKeypad()

ulong AskKeypad(void)

A subsidiary Forth function that is called by ScanKeypad(); see ScanKeypad().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: ?KEYPAD
Header file: intrface.h

 
AskKeypress()

ulong AskKeypress(void)

A subsidiary Forth function that is called by ScanKeypress(); see ScanKeypress().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: ?KEYPRESS
Header file: intrface.h

 
ASLEEP

ASLEEP

A constant that returns the value 1. When stored into a task's STATUS user variable, indicates to the multitasking executive that the task is asleep and cannot be entered.

The following example illustrates how to put another task to sleep. Assume that we have pre-defined an infinite loop task function named GatherData(), and that we have named, built and activated a task with the following statements:

TASK  ReadInputTask;      // name and allocate the task area
BUILD_C_TASK(0,0,&ReadInputTask);   // build the task in RAM
ACTIVATE(GatherData, &ReadInputTask);   // activate the task

Now the task is AWAKE and running, and the TASK command has defined &ReadInputTask as a pointer to the task's TASK structure, of which the USER_AREA structure is the first element. Note that the task's STATUS address (whose contents control whether the task is AWAKE) is the first element in the task's USER_AREA structure; its element name is user_status. Thus, to put the task ASLEEP we simply execute

ReadInputTask.USER_AREA.user_status = ASLEEP ;

If a given task wants to put itself asleep, it can simply execute the commands:

STATUS = ASLEEP;
Pause();

The Pause() command ensures that the multitasking executive immediately exits the task after it is put ASLEEP.

See also AWAKE.

Type: constant
Related Forth function: ASLEEP
Header file: mtasker.h

 
ATTACH()

void ATTACH( void(*action)(), int interrupt_id)

Posts an interrupt handler routine specified by the function pointer (*action)() for the interrupt with identity number interrupt_id (for example, OC1_ID, SWI_ID, etc). This macro form of the Attach() function is recommended for applications whose object code fits on a single page. For example, suppose you have defined a standard C function named OC1_Service() to service the Output Compare #1 interrupt. To install the interrupt handler, simply execute

ATTACH( OC1_Service, OC1_ID);

Note that the name of the service routine is passed as a parameter without parentheses; this tells the C compiler to pass a pointer to the OC1_Service() function. ATTACH() compiles an 8-byte code sequence at the EEPROM location associated with the specified interrupt. When the interrupt is serviced, the code specified by the function pointer will be executed. The service routine should NOT be declared as an _interrupt function; the ATTACH() routine compiles the needed RTI (return from interrupt) instruction.

Type: macro
Related Forth function: Attach()
Header file: interupt.h

 
Attach()

void Attach(void(*action)(), uint actionPage, int interrupt_id)

Posts an interrupt handler routine specified by the function pointer (*action)() whose code is compiled on actionPage for the interrupt with identity number interrupt_id (for example, OC1_ID, OC3_ID, etc). This functional form (as opposed to the ATTACH() macro) is recommended for applications whose object code resides on more than one memory page on the QED Board. For example, suppose you have defined a standard C function named OC1_Service() on QED memory page 5 to service the Output Compare #1 interrupt. (To find out on which page the service routine resides, search for the service routine's name in the .OUT file created by the compiler, and look at the top 2 hexadecimal digits of the hexadecimal function address.) To install the interrupt handler, simply execute

Attach( OC1_Service, 5, OC1_ID);

Note that the name of the service routine is passed as a parameter without parentheses; this tells the C compiler to pass a pointer to the OC1_Service() function. Attach() compiles an 8-byte code sequence at the EEPROM location associated with the specified interrupt. When the interrupt is serviced, the code specified by the function pointer will be executed. The service routine NOT be declared as an _interrupt function; the Attach() routine compiles the needed RTI (return from interrupt) instruction.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: ATTACH
Header file: interupt.h

 
Autostart()

void Autostart( void(*action)(), uint actionPage)

Compiles a 6-byte sequence into the EEPROM in the 68HC11. On subsequent restarts and ABORTs, the routine having the specified xcfa will be executed. This allows a finished application to be automatically entered upon power up and resets. CAUTION: If your application is to be put into production and replicated, it is recommended that you use the PriorityAutostart() function which stores the 6-byte autostart sequence in flash memory.

Usage: We recommend that Autostart() and PriorityAutostart() be executed interactively from the QED-Forth monitor. The easiest way to do this is to use Forth syntax instead of C syntax. After your application program is completed and debugged, simply type from your terminal the command:

CFA.FOR   MAIN   AUTOSTART

This writes a pattern into EEPROM that causes MAIN to be executed upon all subsequent resets and restarts.

Implementation detail: At location hex AE00 in EEPROM, AUTOSTART writes the pattern 1357 followed by the four byte xcfa. To undo the effects of this command and return to the default startup action, type the QED-Forth command

  NO.AUTOSTART

from your terminal. To recover from the installation of a buggy autostart routine, use the special cleanup mode as described in the "Programming the QED Board in C" chapter in the "Getting Started" Manual.

See also PriorityAutostart().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: AUTOSTART
Header file: qedsys.h

 
AWAKE

AWAKE

A constant that returns the value 0. When stored into a task's STATUS user variable, indicates to the multitasking executive that the task is awake and may be entered.

The following example illustrates how to wake up another task that was earlier put to sleep. Assume that we have pre-defined an infinite loop task function named GatherData(), and that we have named, built and activated a task with the following statements:

TASK ReadInputTask;      // name and allocate the task area
BUILD_C_TASK(0, 0, &ReadInputTask);   // build the task in RAM
ACTIVATE(GatherData, &ReadInputTask);   // activate the task

If the task has been put ASLEEP by a command such as

ReadInputTask.USER_AREA.user_status = ASLEEP ;

we can now wake it up with the following command:

ReadInputTask.USER_AREA.user_status = AWAKE ;

The TASK command has defined &ReadInputTask as a pointer to the task's TASK structure of which the USER_AREA structure is the first element. Note that the task's STATUS address (whose contents control whether the task is AWAKE) is the first element in the task's USER_AREA structure; its element name is user_status.

See also ASLEEP.

Type: constant
Related Forth function: AWAKE
Header file: mtasker.h

 
Baud1AtStartup()

void Baud1AtStartup(int baud)

Configures the QED Board so that the baud rate of the primary serial port (serial1) supported by the 68HC11's hardware UART will equal the specified standard baud rate upon all subsequent resets and restarts. Standard baud rates for are 150, 300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, and 19200 baud. This function can also be called interactively from the terminal using QED-Forth syntax; simply type the baud rate followed by a space followed by BAUD1.AT.STARTUP. For example, to change the baud rate to 19,200 baud, type from your terminal:

DECIMAL   19200   BAUD1.AT.STARTUP

Implementation detail: This routine calls InstallRegisterInits() which writes into EEPROM the required contents of INIT (=B8H), the contents of BAUD that corresponds to the specified baud rate, and the contents of OPTION, TMSK2, and BPROT that are present when this routine is executed. These values are installed in their respective registers upon each subsequent reset and restart. To undo the effects of this command, type from your terminal the command

DEFAULT.REGISTER.INITS

or invoke the special cleanup mode as described in the "Programming the QED Board in C" chapter in the "Getting Started" Manual.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: BAUD1.AT.STARTUP
Header file: comm.h

 
Baud2()

void Baud2(int baud)

Sets the baud rate of the secondary serial port (serial2) supported by QED-Forth's software UART using hardware pins PA3 (input) and PA4 (output). Smooth file transfers can be achieved at up to 4800 baud. The baud rate of serial2 is initialized to 1200 baud by the COLD restart routine.

See also UseSerial2() and Serial2AtStartup().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: BAUD2
Header file: comm.h

 
Beep()

void Beep(void)

Emits the bell character, ascii 07. Setting the user variable QUIET (see user_quiet in the user.h file) to a true (non-zero) value silences the beep.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: BEEP
Header file: comm.h

 
Breakpoint()

void Breakpoint(void)

The Breakpoint() function may be edited into any function that is being debugged to set a software breakpoint. It saves the machine state and invokes a FORTH-style interactive text interpreter that can be distinguished from the standard interpreter by the BREAK> prompt displayed at the start of each line. Any valid commands may be executed from within the Breakpoint interpreter. From within the Breakpoint interpreter, typing a carriage return alone on a line exits the Breakpoint mode, restores the machine registers to the values they held just before Breakpoint() was entered, and resumes execution of the program that was running when Breakpoint() was entered. The Breakpoint() routine's preservation of the register state and its ability to execute any valid command make it a very powerful debugging tool. Breakpoint() may be compiled into any definition to stop program flow in order to debug or analyze a function at the point where Breakpoint() was called. Once inside Breakpoint(), variables and memory locations may be displayed or altered using QED-Forth debugging routines such as DUMP, INT, =INT, etc.; see the debugging glossary section of this document. To fully exit from the routine that called Breakpoint(), type ABORT (or any illegal command) from the terminal in response to the BREAK> prompt. Any error encountered while in the BREAK routine executes ABORT which places the programmer back into the standard QED-Forth interpreter (unless ABORT has been revectored to perform some other action; see CUSTOM_ABORT).

Type: _forth function
Forth name: BREAK
Header file: qedsys.h

 
BufferPosition()

uint BufferPosition(int line, int column)

Given the specified LCD display line number n1 [0 ≤ n1 < LinesPerDisplay()] and the specified character position in the display line [0 ≤ n2 < CharsPerDisplayLine()], returns the offset of the specified position relative to the base address returned by DisplayBuffer(). Clamps the returned offset to ensure that it is not greater than the size of the buffer. Note that for a graphics-style display the input parameter "line" is interpreted differently depending on whether the display is being used in "text mode" or "graphics mode". In text mode, "line" corresponds to the character line#; in graphics mode, "line" corresponds to the pixel line#.

See also LinesPerDisplay().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: BUFFER.POSITION
Header file: intrface.h

 
BuildTask()

void BuildTask(xaddr heapStart,xaddr heapEnd,xaddr vp,xaddr dp,xaddr np,xaddr tib,xaddr pad,

   xaddr pocket,xaddr r0,xaddr s0,xaddr taskBase, int n)

Subsidiary function called by the recommended macro BUILD_C_TASK; see BUILD_C_TASK.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: BUILD.TASK
Header file: mtasker.h

 
BUILD_C_TASK()

void BUILD_C_TASK( xaddr heapStart, xaddr heapEnd, TASK * taskbase)

Builds a task with a specified heap, locating its task area in a 1 kilobyte block starting at the specified taskbase address in common RAM. The TASK declaration is used to name and allocate the task area. BUILD_C_TASK() assigns the task's stacks, user area, and PAD, POCKET, and TIB buffers to a 1Kbyte block of common RAM starting at the base of the TASK structure. The task is appended to the round-robin task list and left ASLEEP running the default action routine Halt(). heapStart is the 32-bit heap starting address, and xaddr2 is the extended heap end address. For example, the following statements name, allocate and build a task whose heap (which is where arrays reside) extends from location 0000 on page 5 to 0x7FFF on page 6:

TASK Taskname;   // name and allocate task space
BUILD_C_TASK( 0x050000, 0x067FFF, &Taskname);

TASK creates and allocates the new TASK structure. BUILD_C_TASK() first calls IsHeap() which initializes the heap accordingly. BUILD_C_TASK() then initializes the task's USER_AREA and task buffers in the 1 kilobyte area starting at the task's base address. The user area of the parent task (i.e., the task that is active when this command executes) is copied to create the new task's USER_AREA, so the parent's configuration is initially "inherited" by the new task. The variables that control the memory map of the new task are set so that the return stack extends downward for 512 bytes at &Taskname + 0x400, the Forth data stack extends downward for up to 128 bytes at &Taskname + 0x200, TIB (QED-Forth terminal input buffer) extends upward for 96 bytes starting at &Taskname + 0x180, the page-change stack (bankstack) extends downward for 128 bytes starting at &Taskname + 0x180, POCKET (used by QED-Forth interpreter) extends upward for 36 bytes starting at &Taskname + 0x200, and PAD (scratchpad area, available for programmer) extends upward for 88 bytes and downward for 35 bytes starting at &Taskname + 0x100. To initialize CURRENT_HEAP without modifying the heap control variables, pass BUILD_C_TASK() a heapStart address that is equal to the heapEnd address; see IsHeap().

Type: macro
Related Forth function: BUILD.TASK
Header file: mtasker.h

 
CALENDAR_TIME

CALENDAR_TIME

This struct typedef defines the bytes that hold the results of a read of the battery-backed real-time clock. The watch_results instance of this structure is initialized each time ReadWatch is executed. A set of macros (WATCH_SECONDS, WATCH_MINUTES, WATCH_HOUR, etc.) have been predefined to facilitate easy access to the watch results; see the glossary entry for ReadWatch().

Type: typedef
Forth name: READ.WATCH
Header file: watch.h

 
ChangeBits()

void ChangeBits(uchar data, uchar mask, xaddr address)

At the byte specified by the 32-bit address, modifies the bits specified by 1's in the mask to have the values indicated by the corresponding bits in the data parameter. In other words, mask specifies the bits at xaddr that are to be modified, and the data parameter provides the data which is written to the modified bits. This function is useful for modifying data in arrays located in paged memory, where the extended address is returned by ARRAYMEMBER(). Disables interrupts for 16 cycles (4 microseconds) to ensure an uninterrupted read/modify/write operation.

See also ClearBits(), SetBits(), and ToggleBits().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: CHANGE.BITS
Header file: xmem.h

 
ChangeTaskerPeriod()

void ChangeTaskerPeriod(uint periodFactor)

Sets periodFactor as the period of the timeslice clock (the OC2 interrupt) in units of 100 microseconds. For example, to set the timeslice period to 0.8 msec, execute

ChangeTaskerPeriod(8);

Note that the default timeslice increment set after a COLD restart is 5 msec. Implementation detail: Based on the prescaler bits PR1 and PR0 in the TMSK2 register, this routine calculates the period of the clock driving the OC2 timer. It then calculates the number of these periods in the requested timeslice period u, and stores the resulting OC2 timer increment in an unnamed system variable called TIMESLICE_INCREMENT. This stored increment sets the period of the OC2 timer. The period of the OC2 timer determines the timeslice period and also the resolution of the elapsed time clock. Aborts if the calculated increment is 0 or is greater than 65,535.

See also TIMESLICE_COUNT and ReadElapsedSeconds().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: *100US=TIMESLICE.PERIOD
Header file: mtasker.h

 
CharsPerDisplayLine()

int CharsPerDisplayLine(void)

Returns the number of characters per line in the LCD display as specified by the last execution of IsDisplay(); valid return values are 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 30, and 40 characters per line. The default return value after executing the "special cleanup mode" is 20, corresponding to the default 4-line by 20-character display. The result returned by this routine is used by BufferPosition(), PutCursor(), UpdateDisplay(), and UpdateDisplayLine().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: CHARS/DISPLAY.LINE
Header file: intrface.h

 
CharToDisplay()

void CharToDisplay(char c)

Writes the specified data byte c to the LCD display. Does not write to the Display Buffer. If an alphanumeric (character) display is being used, this command writes the specified ascii character at the current cursor position and increments the cursor position. (Caution: the cursor does not always follow a contiguous path as it is incremented; there may be discontinuities at the ends of lines.) If a graphics display is in use, this function must be used in conjunction with a function that specifies the meaning of the data byte. Intermittently disables interrupts for 28 cycles (7 µsec) per byte written to the display to implement clock stretching.

See also CommandToDisplay() and UpdateDisplay().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: CHAR>DISPLAY
Header file: intrface.h

 
ClearBits()

void ClearBits(uchar mask, xaddr address)

For each bit of mask that is set, clears the corresponding bit of the 8 bit value at the 32bit address. This function is useful for modifying data in arrays located in paged memory, where the extended address is returned by ARRAYMEMBER(). Disables interrupts for ten cycles (2.5 microseconds) to ensure an uninterrupted read/modify/write operation.

See also ChangeBits(), SetBits(), and ToggleBits().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: CLEAR.BITS
Header file: xmem.h

 
ClearDisplay()

void ClearDisplay(void)

Clears (blanks) the LCD display and moves the cursor to home position (at the start of line 0). If a character display is in use [see IsDisplay()], fills the 80 character DISPLAY.BUFFER with ascii blank characters. If a graphics display is being used in text mode, fills the buffer specified by GARRAY_XPFA with ascii blanks if a Hitachi graphics controller is in use, or with zeros if a Toshiba graphics controller is in use. If a graphics display is being used in graphics mode, erases (zeros) the buffer specified by GARRAY_XPFA. Intermittently disables interrupts for 28 cycles (7 µsec) per byte written to the display to implement clock stretching.

See also InitDisplay().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: CLEAR.DISPLAY
Header file: intrface.h

 
ClearHighCurrent()

void ClearHighCurrent(uchar mask)

For each bit of the input mask byte that is set, turns the corresponding high current driver OFF so that it is not sinking current. Bits 0-3 in the input mask byte control the high current drivers named HC0-HC3, respectively. Disables interrupts for 31 cycles (less than 8 microseconds).

See also SetHighCurrent().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: CLEAR.HIGH.CURRENT
Header file: pia.h

 
CLOCK_MONITOR_ID

CLOCK_MONITOR_ID

A constant that returns the interrupt identity code for the clock monitor interrupt. Used as an argument for ATTACH().

Type: constant
Related Forth function: CLOCK.MONITOR.ID
Header file: interupt.h

 
CmoveMany()

void CmoveMany(xaddr source, xaddr dest, long numBytes)

Moves a block of memory. If the 32-bit byte count numBytes is greater than 0, numBytes consecutive bytes are copied from addresses starting at source to addresses starting at dest. The source and destination extended addresses may be located on different pages and the move may cross page boundaries. If the source and destination regions overlap and source is less than dest, CmoveMany() starts at high memory and moves toward low memory to avoid propagation of the moved contents. CmoveMany() always moves the contents in such a way as to avoid memory propagation. Speed is approximately 19 microseconds per byte.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: CMOVE.MANY
Header file: xmem.h

 
Cold()

void Cold(void)

Disables interrupts and restarts the QED-Forth system and initializes all of the user variables to their default values. Initializes the following machine registers:

PORTG, DDRG, TMSK2, SPCR, BAUD, SCCR1, SCCR2, BPROT,
OPT2, OPTION, HPRIO, INIT, CSCTL.

Initializes the vectors of the vital interrupts if InitVitalIRQsOnCold() has been executed. Calls Abort() which clears the stacks and calls either the QED-Forth interpreter or an autostart routine that has been installed using Autostart() or PriorityAutostart(). If ColdOnReset() has been executed, every reset or power-up will invoke a Cold() as opposed to a Warm() initialization sequence. This function may be called interactively from the terminal by simply typing:

COLD

See also Warm().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: COLD
Header file: qedsys.h

 
ColdOnReset()

void ColdOnReset(void)

Initializes a flag in EEPROM that causes subsequent resets to execute a cold restart (as opposed to the standard warm-or-cold restart). This option is useful for turnkeyed systems that have an autostart routine installed; any error or reset causes a full Cold() restart which initializes all user variables, after which the autostart routine completes the system initialization and enters the application routine. To revert to the standard reset, call StandardReset(). Note that this function can be executed interactively from QED-Forth by typing at the terminal:

COLD.ON.RESET

Implementation detail: Initializes location 0xAE1C in EEPROM to contain the pattern 0x13.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: COLD.ON.RESET
Header file: qedsys.h

 
CommandToDisplay()

void CommandToDisplay(char cmd)

Writes the specified cmd byte to the LCD display as a command (as opposed to a data byte to be displayed). Does not modify the contents of the Display Buffer. Intermittently disables interrupts for 28 cycles (7 µsec) per command byte written to the display to implement clock stretching.

See also CharToDisplay().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: COMMAND>DISPLAY
Header file: intrface.h

 
COPYARRAY()

void COPYARRAY(FORTH_ARRAY* src_array_ptr, FORTH_ARRAY* dest_array_ptr)

Dimensions the destination array specified by dest_array_ptr and copies the contents of the source array specified by src_array_ptr into the destination. The source and destination can be in the same or different heaps.

See the FORTH_ARRAY glossary entry for a description of how to define an array and its corresponding array_ptr.

Type: macro
Related Forth function: COPY.ARRAY
Header file: array.h

 
CopyArray()

void CopyArray(FORTH_ARRAY* src_array_ptr, uint pfa_page, FORTH_ARRAY* dest_array_ptr, uint pfa_page)

Subsidiary function called by the recommended macro COPYARRAY(); see COPYARRAY().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: COPY.ARRAY
Header file: array.h

 
COP_ID

COP_ID

A constant that returns the interrupt identity code for the computer operating properly (COP) interrupt. Used as an argument for ATTACH().

Type: constant
Related Forth function: COP.ID
Header file: interupt.h

 
CountedString()

xaddr CountedString(char* stringAddr, uint strPage)

Converts the specified null-terminated string (located at stringAddr on strPage) into a Forth-style counted string with the count in the first byte and the non-null-terminated string in the remaining bytes. Returns the 32-bit address of PAD which is where the converted counted string is located. The resulting string can be moved to any desired location by the StringMove() function. Note that the size of the PAD buffer puts a limit on the string size; the input string length should be less than 86 bytes.

See also StringMove() and PAD.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: C$>COUNTED$
Header file: xmem.h

 
Cr()

void Cr(void)

Causes subsequent output to appear at the beginning of the next line by emitting a carriage return (ascii 13) followed by a line feed (ascii 10).

See also Emit().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: CR
Header file: comm.h

 
CreateRamp()

int CreateRamp(int start_speed, int end_speed, int acceleration, int ticks_per_sec, RAMP_ELEMENT* starting_ramp_addr, int speeds_per_ramp)

Writes speed_per_ramp +1 entries into the RAMP.ARRAY starting at the specified start_ramp_addr to attain the specified starting and ending speeds and acceleration (or deceleration). Returns the number of steps in the created ramp. start_speed, end_speed and acceleration are all interpreted as positive numbers. Speeds are in units of steps per second if the motor is configured for full stepping, or halfsteps per second if the motor is configured for half stepping. The acceleration is in units of (half) steps per second per second. Speeds are clamped to the attainable range (between 0 and ticks_per_second), and the acceleration is clamped such that a maximum of 10 seconds is spent at any one transient speed in a ramp. Each ramp entry comprises a step_limit which specifies the number of steps to be taken at the speed, and a duty_cycle which specifies the speed (see the glossary entry for SpeedToDuty). If the specified speeds_per_ramp = 0, this function simply writes a "final" speed by setting the step_limit to 0. For non-zero speeds_per_ramp, this routine writes the specified number of ramp entries, plus an additional entry at the final speed with the step_limit set to 0 which tells the StepManager function that this is the final speed in the ramp. Note that higher level calling routines can write over the final speed, or concatenate two ramps to achieve a speed profile that ramps up to a steady speed for a specified number of steps, and then smoothly ramps down to a stopped state.

See the high level source file steppers.c in the Demos_and_Drivers directory of the distribution.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: CREATE.RAMP
Header file: stepper.h

 
CURRENT_HEAP

CURRENT_HEAP

A user variable (member of the currently active TASK.USER_AREA structure) that holds the 32-bit extended address that specifies the end of the current heap. Other heap control variables are stored just below this address in the heap.

See also IsHeap().

Type: macro
Related Forth function: CURRENT.HEAP
Header file: user.h

 
CUSTOM_ABORT

CUSTOM_ABORT

A user variable (member of the currently active TASK.USER_AREA structure) that contains a flag. If the flag is 0 (false), then the standard system SysAbort() routine is performed. If the flag is non-zero (true), then the function whose address is stored in the user variable UABORT is executed when Abort() runs.

See also Abort(), SysAbort(), and UABORT.

Type: macro
Related Forth function: CUSTOM.ABORT
Header file: user.h

 
CUSTOM_ERROR

CUSTOM_ERROR

A user variable (member of the currently active TASK.USER_AREA structure) that contains a flag. If the flag is 0 (false), then the default error routine is performed in response to every system error. If the flag is non-zero (true), then the function whose address is stored in the user variable UERROR when an error occurs.

See also UERROR.

Type: macro
Related Forth function: CUSTOM.ERROR
Header file: user.h

 
DDRA

DDRA

A macro that returns the contents of the 8 bit DDRA (data direction for PORTA) register at address 0x8001 in the 68HC11. To configure a PORTA pin to be an output, simply use an assignment statement to write a 1 to the corresponding bit position in DDRA. Similarly, to configure a PORTA pin to be an input, write a 0 to the corresponding bit position in DDRA. Note that the software UART that implements the secondary serial port uses bits 3 and 4 of PORTA, so care must be taken not to alter the direction or state of these bits if the secondary serial port is in use.

Type: macro
Related Forth function: PORTA.DIRECTION
Header file: qedregs.h

 
DDRD

DDRD

A macro that returns the contents of the 8 bit PORTD register at address 0x8009 in the 68HC11 which sets the data direction of bits 2-5 of PORTD. PORTD implements the primary serial channel on bits 0 and 1, and the serial peripheral interface (SPI) on bits 2-5 which controls the onboard 12 bit A/D and 8 bit D/A. If these SPI-interfaced devices are on the board, the contents of DDRD should be left in their default state.

Type: macro
Related Forth function: PORTD.DIRECTION
Header file: qedregs.h

 
DefaultRegisterInits()

void DefaultRegisterInits(void)

Undoes the effect of the InstallRegisterInits() command.

Implementation detail: sets the contents of location 0xAE06 in EEPROM to 0xFF to ensure that default initializations will be used after subsequent resets. The default register initializations are:

Register   Register   Default
Name      Address   Value
OPTION   0x8039      0x33
TMSK2      0x8024      0x02
BPROT      0x8035      0x10
BAUD      0x802B      0x31

Note that calling this function restores the baud rate of the primary serial port to 9600 baud upon subsequent resets and restarts; see Baud1AtStartup().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: DEFAULT.REGISTER.INITS
Header file: qedsys.h

 
DEFAULT_HEAPEND

DEFAULT_HEAPEND

A 32-bit constant that returns the value 0x0F4600 cast as an xaddr. Used as an argument for IsHeap() to establish the default 14.5 Kbyte heap on page fifteen.

See also DEFAULT_HEAPSTART and INIT_DEFAULT_HEAP().

Type: constant
Header file: heap.h

 
DEFAULT_HEAPSTART

DEFAULT_HEAPSTART

A 32-bit constant that returns the value 0x0F4600 cast as an xaddr. Used as an argument for IsHeap() to establish the default 14.5 Kbyte heap on page fifteen.

See also DEFAULT_HEAPEND and INIT_DEFAULT_HEAP().

Type: constant
Header file: heap.h

 
DELETED()

void DELETED(FORTH_ARRAY* array_ptr)

De-allocates the heap space assigned to the specified Forth array, and clears the parameter field to indicate that the data structure is no longer dimensioned. It is good programming practice to delete arrays that hold temporary data after the data has been used; this frees the space in the heap for use by other arrays.

See the FORTH_ARRAY glossary entry for a description of how to define an array and its corresponding array_ptr, and see DIM() for a description of how to dimension arrays.

Type: macro
Related Forth function: DELETED
Header file: array.h

 
Deleted()

void Deleted(FORTH_ARRAY* array_ptr, uint pfa_page)

Subsidiary function called by the recommended macro DELETED(); see DELETED().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: DELETED
Header file: array.h

 
DIM()

void DIM(type, uint numrows, uint numcols, FORTH_ARRAY* array_ptr)

Dimensions the array specified by array_ptr to have the specified number of rows and columns, with each array element sized to hold a parameter of the specified type. Examples of valid "type" parameters are standard identifiers and pre-defined types such as:

int      unsigned int      uint
char      unsigned char   uchar
long      unsigned long   ulong

Note that the uint, uchar, and ulong types are defined in the types.h file.

DIM() first executes DELETED() to de-allocate any heap space previously allocated to the array, and then writes the dimensioning information into the array's parameter field in common RAM and allocates the required number of bytes in the heap. Calls Abort() if there is not enough heap space.

Example of use:

To define an array of unsigned longs named MyArray with 3 rows and 5 columns, execute:

FORTH_ARRAY  Myarray;
DIM(ulong, 3, 5, &Myarray);

Once an array is declared using FORTH_ARRAY, it may be dimensioned "on the fly". BE SURE TO DIMENSION THE ARRAY WITHIN A FUNCTION THAT IS CALLED AT RUNTIME! COMPILE-TIME OR LINK-TIME DIMENSIONING DOES NOT WORK WITH FORTH ARRAYS! Note that the & operator in front of the array's name tells the compiler that a pointer is being passed. If you forget the & operator, the compiler will warn you that you are attempting to pass an entire structure (the array's parameter structure) as an argument to a function.

To store the value 0x123456 at row=0, column = 1, execute:

ARRAYSTORE( 0x123456, 0, 1, &Myarray);

To fetch the value stored at row=0, column=1 and assign it to a variable, you could execute:

static ulong  retrieved_data;
retrieved_data = ARRAYFETCH( 0, 1, &Myarray);

Note: the dimensioned FORTH_ARRAY array is not a C array. It must be initialized and accessed via special fetch and store functions such as ARRAYFETCH(), FARRAYFETCH(), ARRAYSTORE() and FARRAYSTORE() as opposed to C-style pointer arithmetic. The dimensioned FORTH_ARRAY is stored in memory in column-primary order; in other words, sequential elements in a column are stored in sequential memory addresses. This is the reverse of standard C-style arrays. The functions related to FORTH_ARRAYs provide a convenient means of storing data in the large paged memory space of the QED Board; the standard 16-bit ANSI C compiler cannot directly address this extended memory without the aid of the Forth heap manager and memory access functions.

See FORTH_ARRAY, ARRAYSTORE(), FARRAYSTORE(), ARRAYFETCH(), FARRAYFETCH(), ARRAYMEMBER(), ARRAYBASE(), DELETED(), FILLARRAY(), and COPYARRAY().

Type: macro; related function: DIMENSIONED()
Header file: array.h

 
Dimensioned()

void Dimensioned(uint r, uint c, uint Numdims, uint bytesPerElement,

FORTH_ARRAY* array_ptr, uint pfa_page)

Subsidiary function called by the recommended macro DIM(). Dimensioned() initializes the parameter field in common memory and allocates space for the specified memory in the heap. The parameters specify the number of rows, number of columns, number of dimensions (must equal 2), and bytes per element (should be 1, 2, or 4 so the standard ARRAYFETCH() and ARRAYSTORE() functions can access the data).

See also DIM().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: DIMENSIONED
Header file: array.h

 
DIM_AD12_BUFFER()

void DIM_AD12_BUFFER(FORTH_ARRAY* array_ptr, uint NumSamples)

Dimensions a buffer to accept data from the 12 bit A/D via the AD12ToBuffer() function. Dimensions the specified Forth array to have NumSamples rows, 1 column, and 2 bytes per element. DIM_AD12_BUFFER() must be executed once before the first call of AD12ToBuffer(). After that, there is no need to call DIM_AD12_BUFFER() unless you wish to change the dimensions of the buffer. For a detailed example of use, see the glossary entry for AD12ToBuffer() .

Type: macro
Header file: array.h

 
DIM_AD8_BUFFER()

void DIM_AD8_BUFFER(FORTH_ARRAY* array_ptr, uint NumSamples)

Dimensions a buffer to accept data from the 8 bit A/D via the AD8ToBuffer() function. Dimensions the specified Forth array to have NumSamples rows, 1 column, and 1 byte per element. DIM_AD8_BUFFER() must be executed once before the first call of AD8ToBuffer(). After that, there is no need to call DIM_AD8_BUFFER() unless you wish to change the dimensions of the buffer. For a detailed example of use, see the glossary entry for AD8ToBuffer() .

Type: macro
Header file: array.h

 
DISABLE_INTERRUPTS()

DISABLE_INTERRUPTS(void)

Sets the interrupt mask bit (the "I bit") in the condition code register to globally disable interrupts.

Type: Macro; Related QED-Forth function: DISABLE.INTERRUPTS
Header file: interupt.h

 
DisableSerial2()

void DisableSerial2(void)

Disables the secondary serial port (serial2) which is supported by QED-Forth's software UART. Implementation detail: Locally disables the serial2 output interrupt OC4 and disconnects the pin control logic associated with the PA4 output. Locally disables the serial2 input interrupt IC4/OC5. Clears (stores 0 into) the resource variable SERIAL2_RESOURCE.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: DISABLE.SERIAL2
Header file: comm.h

 
DisplayBuffer()

xaddr DisplayBuffer(void)

Returns the 32-bit base address (including page) of the buffer that holds the display data. To write all or part of this buffer to the LCD display, call UpdateDisplay() or UpdateDisplayLine(), respectively. If a character display is in use, the returned xaddr is the base address of an 80 character buffer in the system RAM. If a graphics display is in use, the returned xaddr is the starting address of the array associated with the Forth array pointer GARRAY_XPFA. Each byte in the DisplayBuffer represents a character position or graphical byte on the LCD display. To display characters on the LCD display, simply write the desired ascii characters or graphical data into this buffer and execute UpdateDisplayLine() or UpdateDisplay(). UpdateDisplayLine() causes the contents of a specified line in the DisplayBuffer to be written to the corresponding line of the display. UpdateDisplay() causes the contents of all lines in DisplayBuffer to be written to the corresponding lines of the display.

See also StringToDisplay() and BufferPosition().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: DISPLAY.BUFFER
Header file: intrface.h

 
DisplayOptions()

void DisplayOptions(int display_on, int cursor_on, int cursor_blink, int text_mode)

Sets the display and cursor options on the LCD display. Each of the input parameters is a flag that takes a false (0) or true (non-zero) value. If display_on is true, the contents of the display are visible; if false, the display appears blank. If cursor_on is true, the cursor is on (typically an underscore character); if false, the cursor is off. If cursor_blink is true, the cursor blinks (typically a flashing box the size of a single character); if false, the cursor blink is turned off. If text_mode is true, the display is operating in "text mode"; if false, it is operating in "graphics mode". Note that graphics mode should only be specified if a graphics display is in use; see IsDisplay(). Note also that the cursor is never visible in graphics mode. The InitDisplay() function (which is executed upon each reset or restart) leaves the display enabled with the cursor off and cursor blink off.

Implementation detail: In addition to writing the appropriate command byte to the display, DisplayOptions() stores the command byte in an unnamed system variable called PRIOR_CURSOR_STATE. This variable is referenced by UpdateDisplayLine() and UpdateDisplay() to blank the cursor during updates to character displays (to prevent annoying flickering) and restore it to its prior state after the update is complete. It is also used by LinesPerDisplay() to infer whether the display is being operated in text mode or graphics mode, which in turn determines whether LinesPerDisplay() reports the number of character lines or the number of pixel lines in the display. This routine intermittently disables interrupts for 28 cycles (7 µsec) per command byte written to the display to implement clock stretching.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: DISPLAY.OPTIONS
Header file: intrface.h

 
DISPLAY_HEAP

DISPLAY_HEAP

A constant that returns the extended address 0x0F45FF that points to the top of the heap containing the graphics array. Used as an argument for IsHeap(). The default display heap is located at 0x3000 to 0x45FF on page 0x0F. Caution: adding items to the DISPLAY.HEAP is not recommended.

Type: constant
Related Forth function: DISPLAY.HEAP
Header file: intrface.h

 
DownloadMap()

void DownloadMap(void)

Sets a flag in EEPROM and changes the state of a latch in the onboard PALs to put the download memory map into effect on flash-equipped QED-Flash Boards. After execution of this routine, and upon each subsequent reset or restart, pages 4, 5, and 6 are addressed in the S2 RAM, and pages 1, 2, and 3 are addressed in the S1 flash memory. This allows code (and Forth names) to be compiled into RAM on pages 4, 5 and 6 and then transferred to flash using the PAGE.TO.FLASH function described in the Forth debugging glossary. To establish the standard memory map, see the glossary entry for StandardMap(). Note that the standard map is active after a "factory cleanup" operation.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: DOWNLOAD.MAP
Header file: flash.h

 
DupHeapItem()

xaddr DupHeapItem(xaddr xhandle)

Given the 32-bit handle (pointer to a pointer) named xhandle1 of a source heap item, creates a duplicate heap item with identical contents in the same heap and returns its handle. Returns zero if xhandle1 is not a valid handle or if there is insufficient memory in the heap. To copy a heap item into a different heap, use TransferHeapItem().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: DUP.HEAP.ITEM
Header file: heap.h

 
Emit()

void Emit(uchar c)

Displays character c by sending it via the serial I/O port. Emit() is a vectored routine that executes the routine whose 32-bit execution address is installed in the user variable UEMIT. The default installed routine called is Emit1() which sends the character via the primary serial port (supported by the 68HC11's hardware UART). Emit2() may be installed in UEMIT by UseSerial2 or Serial2AtStarup(); Emit2() sends the character via the secondary serial port (supported by QED Forth's software UART and using pins PA3 and PA4).

See also Emit1(), Emit2() and _writeChar().

Type: C function; related QED-Forth function name: EMIT
Header file: comm.h

 
Emit1()

void Emit1(uchar c)

Displays a character by sending it via the primary serial port (serial1) associated with the 68HC11's on-chip hardware UART. Before sending the character, Emit1() waits (if necessary) for the previous character to be sent, and executes Pause() while waiting to allow other tasks (if present) a chance to run. The most significant byte of the input data stack cell is ignored. Emit1() is the default Emit() routine installed in the UEMIT user variable after the special cleanup mode is invoked or if Serial1AtStartup() has been executed. If the value in the user variable SERIAL_ACCESS is RELEASE_AFTER_LINE, Emit1() does not GET(SERIAL1_RESOURCE) or RELEASE(SERIAL1_RESOURCE). If SERIAL_ACCESS contains RELEASE_ALWAYS, Emit1() GETs and RELEASEs the SERIAL1_RESOURCE. If SERIAL_ACCESS contains RELEASE_NEVER, Emit1() GETs but does not RELEASE the SERIAL1_RESOURCE.

See also Emit(), UEMIT, Emit2(), SERIAL_ACCESS.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: EMIT1
Header file: comm.h

 
Emit2()

void Emit2(uchar c)

Writes the specified ascii character c to the output buffer of the secondary serial port (serial2) for subsequent transmission. The serial2 port is supported by QED-Forth's software UART using hardware pins PA3 (input) and PA4 (output). If the serial2 transmitter is idle (and if the serial2 port and its interrupts have been properly initialized) then the character is transmitted immediately. Otherwise the character will be transmitted after the prior characters in the output buffer are transmitted. If the 80 character output buffer is full when Emit2() is executed, Emit2() executes Pause() and waits until room becomes available in the buffer (as a result of a character being sent out). The most significant byte of the input data stack cell is ignored. Emit2() can be made the default Emit() routine installed in the UEMIT user variable after each reset or restart by executing Serial2AtStartup(). If the value in the user variable SERIAL_ACCESS is RELEASE_AFTER_LINE, Emit2() does not GET(SERIAL2_RESOURCE) or RELEASE(SERIAL2_RESOURCE). If SERIAL_ACCESS contains RELEASE_ALWAYS, Emit2() GETs and RELEASEs the SERIAL2_RESOURCE. If SERIAL_ACCESS contains RELEASE_NEVER, Emit2() GETs but does not RELEASE the SERIAL2_RESOURCE.

See also Emit(), UEMIT, Emit1(), SERIAL_ACCESS.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: EMIT2
Header file: comm.h

 
ENABLE_INTERRUPTS()

ENABLE_INTERRUPTS(void)

Clears the interrupt mask bit (the "I bit") in the condition code register to globally enable interrupts.

Type: Macro; Related QED-Forth function: ENABLE.INTERRUPTS
Header file: interupt.h

 
Execute(void(*action)()

void Execute(void(*action)(), uint actionPage)

Executes (calls) the action function specified by the function pointer; the function code resides on the specified actionPage.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: EXECUTE
Header file: qedsys.h

 
EXTENDED_ADDR

EXTENDED_ADDR

A union typedef that provides a way of converting a 16-bit address and associated page into a 32-bit xaddr type, or vis versa. The definition is:

typedef union {   xaddr addr32;
         struct { uint      page16;
             char*   addr16;
            } sixteen_bit;
      } EXTENDED_ADDR;

For example, the following code converts the address of the variable varname in common RAM (which corresponds to a 16 bit address; the effective page = 0) into a 32 bit xaddr in xaddr_of_varname:

char varname;
xaddr  xaddr_of_varname;   // we want this to hold a 32bit addr
EXTENDED_ADDR temporary;   // allocate union to convert type
temporary.sixteen_bit.addr16 = &varname;
temporary.sixteen_bit.page16 = 0;   // common page = 0
xaddr_of_varname = temporary.addr32;   // here's the result

See the source code in the TYPES.H file.

Type: typedef
Header file: types.h

 
FALSE

FALSE

A constant equal to 0.

Type: constant
Related Forth function: FALSE
Header file: utility.h

 
FARRAYFETCH()

float FARRAYFETCH(type, uint row, uint col, FORTH_ARRAY* array_ptr)

Fetches the contents of the floating point element at row#, column# in the specified 2-dimensional array and casts it to the specified type. Typically, the "float" type will be specified when this function is called, although other compatible types may be specified (see the glossary entry for ARRAYFETCH() which handles non-floating-point data). There is an unchecked error if the specified array does not have 2 dimensions or if the number of bytes per element does not equal 4.

See the FORTH_ARRAY glossary entry for a description of how to define an array and its corresponding array_ptr.

See also DIM(), ARRAYFETCH() and FARRAYSTORE().

Type: macro
Related Forth function: ArrayFetch()
Header file: array.h

 
FArrayFetch()

float FArrayFetch(uint row, uint col, FORTH_ARRAY* array_ptr, uint pfa_page)

A subsidiary function called by the recommended macro FARRAYFETCH(); see FARRAYFETCH().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: 2ARRAY.FETCH
Header file: array.h

 
FARRAYSTORE()

void FARRAYSTORE(float value, uint row, uint col, FORTH_ARRAY* array_ptr)

Stores the specified floating point value at row, col in the 2-dimensional FORTH_ARRAY specified by array_ptr. Use ARRAYSTORE() to store non-floating-point data. There is an unchecked error if the specified array does not have 2 dimensions or if the number of bytes per element does not equal 4.

See the FORTH_ARRAY glossary entry for a description of how to define an array and its corresponding array_ptr.

See also DIM() and FARRAYFETCH().

Type: macro
Related Forth function: 2ArrayStore()
Header file: array.h

 
FArrayStore()

void FArrayStore(float value, uint row, uint col, FORTH_ARRAY* array_ptr, uint pfa_page)

A subsidiary function called by the recommended macro FARRAYSTORE(); see FARRAYSTORE().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: 2ARRAY.STORE
Header file: array.h

 
FastAD12Multiple()

void FastAD12Multiple(xaddr buffer, uint Interval, uint NumSamples, int flag, uint channel)

Acquires NumSamples samples from the 12 bit analog-to-digital (A/D) converter and stores the samples as sequential 16 bit values starting at the specified buffer xaddress. [For an automated approach to storing samples in an array in paged memory, see the glossary entries for DIM_AD12_BUFFER() and AD12ToBuffer()]. The Interval parameter specifies the timing of the samples, flag specifies the conversion mode, and channel specifies the channel number of the A/D (0 ≤ channel ≤ 7). The meaning of the flag is as follows:

   Flag value   Type of conversion
   -1      single ended, unipolar
    0      differential, unipolar
    1      single ended, bipolar
    2      differential, bipolar

Single-ended sampling means that the input voltage of the specified channel is referenced to VRL which is typically analog ground. Differential sampling means that the voltage input of the specified channel's "partner" is subtracted from the voltage of the specified channel and the resulting voltage is digitized by the A/D. The pairing of "partner" channels is as follows: [0,1], [2,3], [4,5], and [6,7]. Unipolar sampling means that the input is a positive voltage that swings from VRL to VRH (typically 0 to +5 V), while bipolar sampling means that the input is interpreted as a signed 12 bit representation of an input that swings from -VRH to +VRH (typically -5V to +5V). Note that conversion of inputs more negative than -4.0 V may require an external -5V supply connected to pin 39 of the Analog I/O connector. The data transfer uses the SPI (serial peripheral interface); use InitAD12andDAC() to initialize the SPI interface. To maximize speed, this routine does not GET() or RELEASE() the SPI_RESOURCE. Consequently, this routine should not be used in a multitasking environment where another task might require access to the SPI; see AD12Multiple(). If the specified xaddr is in common memory, the first sample is taken after 58 µsec and subsequent samples are taken every (27.5+2.5*u1) µsec, where u1 is the specified timing parameter passed to this routine. If the specified xaddr is in paged memory, the first sample is taken after 68 µsec and subsequent samples are taken every (50+2.5*u1) µsec. Of course, the operation of interrupts (including timesliced multitasking) will affect these sampling times.

See also FastAD12Sample(), AD12Sample(), AD12Multiple(), DIM_AD12_BUFFER(), AD12ToBuffer() and InitAD12andDAC().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: (A/D12.MULTIPLE)
Header file: analog.h

 
FastAD12Sample()

int FastAD12Sample(int flag, uint channel)

Acquires and places on the stack a single sample u from the 12 bit analog to digital (A/D) converter. n specifies the channel number of the A/D (0 ≤ channel ≤ 7). The meaning of the flag is as follows:

   Flag value   Type of conversion
   -1      single ended, unipolar
    0      differential, unipolar
    1      single ended, bipolar
    2      differential, bipolar

Single-ended sampling means that the input voltage of the specified channel is referenced to VRL which is typically analog ground. Differential sampling means that the voltage input of the specified channel's "partner" is subtracted from the voltage of the specified channel and the resulting voltage is digitized by the A/D. The pairing of "partner" channels is as follows: [0,1], [2,3], [4,5], and [6,7]. Unipolar sampling means that the input is a positive voltage that swings from VRL to VRH (typically 0 to +5 V), while bipolar sampling means that the input is interpreted as a signed 12 bit representation of an input that swings from -VRH to +VRH (typically -5V to +5V). Note that conversion of inputs more negative than -4.0 V may require an external -5V supply connected to pin 39 of the Analog I/O connector. The data transfer uses the SPI (serial peripheral interface); use InitA/D12andDAC() to initialize the SPI interface. To maximize speed, this routine does not GET() or RELEASE() the SPI_RESOURCE. Consequently, this routine should not be used in a multitasking environment where another task might require access to the SPI; see AD12Sample(). Executes in 88 µsec.

See also AD12Sample(), FastAD12Multiple(), AD12Multiple(), and InitA/D12andDAC().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: (A/D12.SAMPLE)
Header file: analog.h

 
FastAD8Multiple()

void FastAD8Multiple(xaddr buffer, uint Interval, uint NumSamples, uint channel)

Acquires NumSamples samples from the 8 bit analog to digital (A/D) converter in the 68HC11 and stores the samples as sequential unsigned 8 bit values starting at the specified buffer xaddress. [For an automated approach to storing samples in an array in paged memory, see the glossary entries for DIM_AD8_BUFFER() and AD8ToBuffer()]. The channel parameter specifies the channel number of the A/D (0 ≤ channel ≤ 7). To maximize speed, this routine does not GET() or RELEASE() the AD8_RESOURCE. Consequently, this routine should not be used in a multitasking environment where another task might require access to the 8 bit A/D; see AD8Multiple(). If the specified xaddr is in common memory, the first sample is taken after 16 µsec and subsequent samples are taken every (10+2.5*u1) µsec, where u1 is the specified timing parameter passed to this routine. If the specified xaddr is in paged memory, the first sample is taken after 11 µsec and subsequent samples are taken every (32.5+2.5*u1) µsec. Of course, the operation of interrupts (including timesliced multitasking) will affect these sampling times.

See also FastAD8Sample(), AD8Sample(), AD8Multiple(), DIM_AD8_BUFFER(), AD8ToBuffer() and AD8On().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: (A/D8.MULTIPLE)
Header file: analog.h

 
FastAD8Sample()

uchar FastAD8Sample(uint channel )

Acquires and places on the stack a single sample byte from the specified channel (0 ≤ channel ≤ 7) of the 8 bit analog to digital (A/D) converter in the 68HC11. To maximize speed, this routine does not GET() or RELEASE() the AD8_RESOURCE. Consequently, this routine should not be used in a multitasking environment where another task might require access to the 8 bit A/D; see AD8Sample(). This routine executes in 23 microseconds.

See also AD8Sample(), FastAD8Multiple(), AD8Multiple(), and AD8On().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: (A/D8.SAMPLE)
Header file: analog.h

 
FastSetDAC()

void FastSetDAC(uchar value, uint channel )

Writes the specified data value to the specified channel of the Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC). Note that the eight valid DAC channel numbers are 1 ≤ channel ≤ 8. The data transfer uses the SPI (serial peripheral interface); use InitAD12andDAC() to initialize the SPI interface. To maximize speed, this routine does not GET() or RELEASE() the SPI_RESOURCE. Consequently, this routine should not be used in a multitasking environment where another task might require access to the SPI. Executes in about 40 microseconds.

See also SetDAC() and InitAD12andDAC().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: (>DAC)
Header file: analog.h

 
FetchChar()

char FetchChar(xaddr address)

Fetches an 8-bit value from the specified extended address. This function is useful for fetching data from arrays located in paged memory, where the extended address is returned by ARRAYMEMBER().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: C@
Header file: xmem.h

 
FetchFloat()

float FetchFloat(fxaddr address)

Fetches a 32-bit floating point number from the specified extended address. This function is useful for fetching data from arrays located in paged memory, where the extended address is returned by ARRAYMEMBER().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: F@
Header file: xmem.h

 
FetchFloatProtected()

float FetchFloatProtected(xaddr address)

Fetches a floating point value from the specified extended address. Disables interrupts during the fetch to ensure that an interrupting routine or task does not modify the contents while the fetch is in process. Disables interrupts for 28 cycles (7 microseconds) unless the specified 4 bytes straddle a page boundary, in which case interrupts are disabled for approximately 260 cycles. Note that in paged memory, the address immediately following 0x7FFF is address 0000 on the following page. This function is useful for fetching data from arrays located in paged memory, where the extended address is returned by ARRAYMEMBER().

See also StoreFloatProtected().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: |F@|
Header file: xmem.h

 
FetchInt()

int FetchInt(xaddr address)

Fetches a 16-bit number from the memory location specified by address. The high order byte is taken from address and the low order byte from address+1. This function is useful for fetching data from arrays located in paged memory, where the extended address is returned by ARRAYMEMBER()

Type: Forth function
Forth name: @
Header file: xmem.h

 
FetchLong()

long FetchLong(xaddr address)

Fetches a 32-bit value from the specified extended address. This function is useful for fetching data from arrays located in paged memory, where the extended address is returned by ARRAYMEMBER().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: 2@
Header file: xmem.h

 
FetchLongProtected()

long FetchLongProtected(xaddr address)

Fetches a 32-bit value from the specified extended address. Disables interrupts during the fetch to ensure that an interrupting routine or task does not modify the contents while the fetch is in process. Disables interrupts for 28 cycles (7 microseconds) unless the specified 4 bytes straddle a page boundary, in which case interrupts are disabled for approximately 260 cycles. Note that in paged memory, the address immediately following 0x7FFF is address 0000 on the following page. This function is useful for fetching data from arrays located in paged memory, where the extended address is returned by ARRAYMEMBER(). For floating point values, use FetchFloatProtected().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: |2@|
Header file: xmem.h

 
FILLARRAY()

void FILLARRAY(FORTH_ARRAY* array_ptr, uchar c)

Stores c into each byte of the specified Forth array. For descriptions of how to define and dimension a Forth array that resides in paged memory, see the glossary entries for FORTH_ARRAY and DIM().

Type: macro
Related Forth function: FILL.ARRAY
Header file: array.h

 
FillArray()

void FillArray(FORTH_ARRAY* array_ptr, uint pfa_page, uchar c)

A subsidiary function called by the recommended macro FILLARRAY(); see FILLARRAY().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: FILL.ARRAY
Header file: array.h

 
FillMany()

void FillMany(xaddr base, long numBytes, char contents)

The specified byte contents is stored in each of numBytes consecutive addresses beginning at the 32-bit extended address base. The specified address region may cross page boundaries. Does nothing if numBytes = 0.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: FILL.MANY
Header file: xmem.h

 
FILL_FIELD

FILL_FIELD

A user variable that contains a flag. If the flag is true (non-zero), floating point numbers converted to strings by FPtoString() or printed in FLOATING format by PrintFP() are padded with spaces to yield a constant field width irrespective of whether the number is printed in scientific notation or fixed notation, and numbers printed in fixed notation are decimal aligned. This leads to neat printouts of tabular data. If the flag is false, the field width is not padded out.

See also FPtoString(), PrintFP() and FLOATING().

Type: macro
Related Forth function: FILL.FIELD
Header file: numbers.h

 
FIXED()

void FIXED(void)

Sets the default printing format used by FPtoString() and PrintFP() to fixed. Numbers are decimal aligned, and RIGHT_PLACES and LEFT_PLACES determine the field width.

See also FPtoString()

Type: macro
Related Forth function: FIXED
Header file: numbers.h

 
FLOATING()

FLOATING()

Sets the default printing format used by FPtoString() and PrintFP() to floating. This format displays the number in FIXED format if the number can be represented with the same or more significant digits as it would if it were represented in SCIENTIFIC format. Otherwise, it uses SCIENTIFIC format.

See also FPtoString()

Type: macro
Related Forth function: FLOATING
Header file: numbers.h

 
FMAILBOX

FMAILBOX

This typedef allocates a 32-bit mailbox in RAM which can be accessed by FSEND(), TRY_TO_FSEND() and FRECEIVE(). The mailbox can hold any floating-point "message"; for non-floating-point messages, use MAILBOX. Example of use:

FMAILBOX   latest_data;
SEND( 3.14159, &latest_data);

Mailboxes are used in multitasked systems to share information between tasks and to synchronize tasks to one another. If the mailbox's contents equal zero, the mailbox is empty; it contains a message if its contents are non-zero. Before its first use, the mailbox must be initialized to zero. After initialization to zero, the only operators that should access the floating point mailbox are FSEND(), TRY_TO_FSEND() and FRECEIVE().

Type: typedef
Related Forth function: MAILBOX:
Header file: mtasker.h

 
ForthAskKey()

int ForthAskKey(void)

A subsidiary function to AskKey(); see AskKey().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: ?KEY
Header file: comm.h

 
ForthEmit()

int ForthEmit(void)

A subsidiary function to Emit(); see Emit().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: EMIT
Header file: comm.h

 
ForthKey()

int ForthKey(void)

A subsidiary function to Key(); see Key().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: KEY
Header file: comm.h

 
FORTH_TASK

FORTH_TASK

A macro that represents the TASKBASE at address 0x8400 for the default QED-Forth task; defined as:

_at(0x8400)  TASK  FORTH_TASK;

See TASK.

Type: macro
Header file: mtasker.h

 
FORTH_ARRAY

FORTH_ARRAY

Declares a new Forth-style array. Use as:

FORTH_ARRAY   array_name;

where array_name is any name of your choosing. The declaration allocates a "parameter field" structure in the variable area. This structure is initialized by DIM() to hold the dimensioning information for the array (number of rows and columns, element size, etc.) as well as pointers to the Forth heap and heap item that contain the array data.

Example of use:

To define an array of unsigned longs named MyArray with 3 rows and 5 columns, execute:

FORTH_ARRAY  Myarray;
DIM(ulong, 3, 5, &Myarray);

Note that the & (address-of) operator in front of the array's name tells the compiler that a pointer is being passed. If you forget the & operator, the compiler will warn you that you are attempting to pass an entire structure (the array's parameter field structure) as an argument to a function.

To store the value 0x123456 at row=0, column = 1, execute:

ARRAYSTORE( 0x123456, 0, 1, &Myarray);

To fetch the value stored at row=0, column=1 and assign it to a variable, you could execute:

static ulong  retrieved_data;
retrieved_data = ARRAYFETCH( 0, 1, &Myarray);

Note: the dimensioned FORTH_ARRAY array is not a C array. It must be initialized and accessed via special fetch and store functions such as ARRAYFETCH(), FARRAYFETCH(), ARRAYSTORE() and FARRAYSTORE() as opposed to C-style pointer arithmetic. The dimensioned FORTH_ARRAY is stored in memory in column-primary order; in other words, sequential elements in a column are stored in sequential memory addresses. This is the reverse of standard C-style arrays. The functions related to FORTH_ARRAYs provide a convenient means of storing data in the large paged memory space of the QED Board; the standard 16-bit ANSI C compiler cannot directly address this extended memory without the aid of the Forth heap manager and memory access functions.

See DIM(), ARRAYSTORE(), FARRAYSTORE(), ARRAYFETCH(), FARRAYFETCH(), ARRAYMEMBER(), ARRAYBASE(), DELETED(), FILLARRAY(), and COPYARRAY().

Type: macro; related function: ARRAY:
Header file: array.h

 
FPtoString()

char* FPtoString(float ansi_fp_num)

Converts the specified ansi_fp_num floating point number to a standard null-terminated ascii string, and returns the address of the string. If the conversion fails, returns 0. The specified number is converted into one of three formats: FIXED, SCIENTIFIC, or FLOATING. To set the default format, execute one of the macros FIXED(), SCIENTIFIC(), or FLOATING(). FLOATING format is the default after a COLD restart. Each format is described in detail here:

FIXED()

If FIXED() has been executed, FPtoString() converts the input number into a text string using the following format: (an optional) sign, LEFT_PLACES digits, a decimal point, RIGHT_PLACES digits, and a trailing space, as

-xxx.yyy

If the user variable NO_SPACES is false (the default condition), the field size equals LEFT_PLACES + RIGHT_PLACES + 3 and numbers are decimal aligned. The size of the string is clamped to a maximum of 32 characters. Setting the user variable TRAILING_ZEROS true displays all trailing zeros to the right of the decimal point, to a maximum specified by the contents of the user variable RIGHT_PLACES. If the input number cannot be represented as an ascii string in FIXED format (that is, if the values of LEFT_PLACES and RIGHT_PLACES won't allow the number to be represented in FIXED format) then FPtoString() returns 0.

SCIENTIFIC()

If SCIENTIFIC() has been executed, FPtoString() converts the input number into a text string using the following format: (an optional) sign, single digit, decimal point, MANTISSA.PLACES digits, E, exponent sign, 2-digit exponent, and a trailing space, as

-1.xxxxE-yy

The field size is 8 plus the contents of the user variable MANTISSA_PLACES. The string includes a trailing space unless NO_SPACES is true. Any valid floating point number can be represented in the SCIENTIFIC format, so a valid string pointer is always returned.

FLOATING()

If FLOATING() has been executed, FPtoString() selects FIXED format unless the number can be displayed with greater resolution using scientific notation, in which case SCIENTIFIC() format is used. If the user variable FILL_FIELD equals zero (the default condition), the string is displayed using the minimum possible field size, and numbers are not decimal aligned. If FILL_FIELD is true (non-zero), the field size of the string is always equal to the scientific field size, which is MANTISSA_PLACES+8, and numbers are decimal aligned for neat display of tabular data. The string includes a trailing space unless NO_SPACES is true. A valid string address is always returned because any valid floating point number can be represented in the FLOATING format.

See also PrintFP().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: FPtoString
Header file: numbers.h

 
FP_CtoQ()

ulong FP_CtoQ(float ansi_fp_num)

Converts the ANSI/IEEE-standard formatted input floating point number into the QED-Forth floating point format as described in the QED-Forth Software Manual. The returned QED-formatted float is declared as an unsigned long to prevent the C compiler from corrupting the value. Converts denormalized input numbers to zero; that is, if the biased exponent = 0, the returned QED-formatted floating point number = zero. NAN (not a number) inputs are converted to +/- infinity depending on their sign bit. The least significant bit (lsb) of the mantissa is not rounded, resulting in up to 1 lsb error during the conversion.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: FP_CtoQ
Header file: numbers.h

 
FP_FORMAT

FP_FORMAT

A user variable (member of the currently active user structure) that specifies the format to be used by subsequent executions of PrintFP() and FPtoString. FP_FORMAT is typically accessed indirectly by means of the format specifiers FIXED(), FLOATING(), and SCIENTIFIC(); see their glossary entries for more details.

Type: macro
Header file: numbers.h

 
FP_QtoC()

float FP_QtoC(ulong qed_fp_number)

Converts the QED-Forth formatted input floating point format into an ANSI/IEEE-standard formatted floating point number. The input QED-formatted float is declared as an unsigned long to prevent the C compiler from corrupting the value.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: FP_QtoC
Header file: numbers.h

 
FRECEIVE()

float FRECEIVE(float* mailboxAddr)

If mailboxAddr is empty (ie., if it contains 0.0), executes Pause() until the mailbox contains a message. If xmailbox contains a message (that is, if it does not contain zero), returns the floating point contents of mailboxAddr and stores 0.0 into mailboxAddr to indicate that the message has been received and that the mailbox is now empty. To receive and send non-floating-point messages, use RECEIVE() and SEND(). To ensure that the state of the mailbox is correctly determined, RECEIVE() disables interrupts for 26 to 61 cycles (6.5 to 15.25 microseconds).

See also FSEND() and MAILBOX.

Type: macro
Related Forth function: RECEIVE
Header file: mtasker.h

 
FReceive()

float FReceive(float* mailboxAddr, uint mailboxPage)

A subsidiary function called by the recommended macro FRECEIVE(); see FRECEIVE().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: RECEIVE
Header file: mtasker.h

 
FromHeap()

xaddr FromHeap(ulong size)

If size bytes are available in the heap, allocates them and returns a 32-bit xhandle (pointer to a pointer) that indirectly points to the 32-bit base xaddress of the allocated heap item. Adjusts size upward so that it is an even multiple of 4, and allocates the heap item so that its base address is an even multiple of 4. Returns 0 if there is not enough heap space to perform the allocation, or if the allocated handle is within 5 bytes of the bottom of CURRENT_HEAP's page (handles must be on the same page as CURRENT_HEAP).

Type: _forth function
Forth name: FROM.HEAP
Header file: heap.h

 
FSEND()

void FSEND(float message, float * mailboxAddr)

Executes Pause() until the mailbox with extended address mailboxAddr is empty (contains 0.0) and then stores the 32-bit floating point message in mailboxAddr. The message can be any 32-bit floating point number except zero; use SEND() to send a non-floating-point value as a message. To ensure that the state of the mailbox is correctly determined, FSEND() disables interrupts for 16 to 50 cycles (4 to 12.5 microseconds).

See also TRY_TO_FSEND, FRECEIVE() and MAILBOX.

Type: macro
Related Forth function: SEND
Header file: mtasker.h

 
FSend()

void FSend(float message, float * mailboxAddr, uint mailboxPage)

A subsidiary function called by the recommended macro FSEND(); see FSEND().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: SEND
Header file: mtasker.h

 
GARRAY_XPFA

GARRAY_XPFA

A macro that returns the 32-bit xpfa (extended parameter field address) that specifies the graphics data array; an xpfa is also referred to as an "array_ptr" in function prototypes. This otherwise unnamed array is dimensioned by InitDisplay() if a graphics display has been selected using IsDisplay(). UpdateDisplayLine() and UpdateDisplay() write the contents of this array to the graphics display. DisplayBuffer() returns the xaddr of the first element in this array if a graphics display is in use.

See the graphics extension routines that are supplied in source code form to augment the ROM libraries; these routines provide examples of how to access information in the graphics array.

Type: macro
Related Forth function: GARRAY.XPFA
Header file: intrface.h

 
GET()

void GET(xaddr* resourceAddr)

Used in a multitasking system to gain access to a shared resource. Executes Pause() until the resource variable whose address is resourceAddr is available, and then GETs the resource by storing the task ID (i.e., the base address of the TASK structure) of the requesting task into the resourceAddr. A 32-bit zero in resourceAddr indicates that the resource is available, and a non-zero value that is not equal to the requesting task's ID indicates that another task controls the resource. To ensure that the state of the resource is correctly determined, GET() disables interrupts for 27 to 57 cycles (6.75 to 14.25 microseconds).

See also TRY_TO_GET(), RELEASE(), TASK and RESOURCE.

Type: macro
Related Forth function: GET
Header file: mtasker.h

 
Get()

void Get(xaddr* resourceAddr, uint resourcePage)

A subsidiary function called by the recommended macro GET(); see GET().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: GET
Header file: mtasker.h

 
Halt()

void Halt(void)

An infinite loop whose action is to put the calling task ASLEEP and execute Pause(). Typically used to terminate a task action that is not itself an infinite loop.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: HALT
Header file: mtasker.h

 
IC1_ID

IC1_ID

A constant that returns the interrupt identity code for input capture 1 which is associated with port bit PA2. Used as an argument for ATTACH().

Type: constant
Related Forth function: IC1.ID
Header file: interupt.h

 
IC2_ID

IC2_ID

A constant that returns the interrupt identity code for input capture 2 which is associated with port bit PA1. Used as an argument for ATTACH().

Type: constant
Related Forth function: IC2.ID
Header file: interupt.h

 
IC3_ID

IC3_ID

A constant that returns the interrupt identity code for input capture 3 which is associated with port bit PA0. Used as an argument for ATTACH().

Type: constant
Related Forth function: IC3.ID
Header file: interupt.h

 
IC4_OC5_ID

IC4_OC5_ID

A constant that returns the interrupt identity code for input capture 4/ output compare 5. This interrupt can control the action of port bit PA3. Note that the optional secondary serial port uses IC4/OC5 and PA3. Used as an argument for ATTACH().

Type: constant
Related Forth function: IC4/OC5.ID
Header file: interupt.h

 
ILLEGAL_OPCODE_ID

ILLEGAL_OPCODE_ID

A constant that returns the interrupt identity code for the illegal opcode interrupt. Used as an argument for ATTACH().

Type: constant
Related Forth function: ILLEGAL.OPCODE.ID
Header file: interupt.h

 
InitAD12andDAC()

void InitAD12andDAC(void)

Calls InitSPI() to configure the serial peripheral interface (SPI) so that it can transfer data from the 12 bit analog to digital converter (AD12) and to the 8 bit digital to analog converter (DAC). Sets all 8 DAC outputs to zero.

See also InitSPI().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: INIT.A/D12&DAC
Header file: analog.h

 
InitDisplay()

void InitDisplay(void)

Initializes the liquid crystal display (LCD) interface. If a graphics-style display has been specified by IsDisplay(), initializes the DISPLAY_HEAP and dimensions GARRAY_XPFA to point to an appropriately sized array in that heap; the base address of this array is returned by DisplayBuffer(). If a character-style (alphanumeric) display has been specified by IsDisplay(), then the display buffer is located in the system RAM and the DISPLAY_HEAP and GARRAY_XPFA are not initialized. If the dimensions specified by IsDisplay() call for a graphics array that is larger than the available Room() in the DISPLAY_HEAP, then InitDisplay() will not dimension the array; see the glossary entry of DISPLAY_HEAP. InitDisplay() calls ClearDisplay() to clear the DisplayBuffer() and write the blank data to the LCD display. Homes the cursor to the start of line 0, and leaves the display enabled with the cursor off and not blinking. Intermittently disables interrupts for 28 cycles (7 µsec) per byte transmitted to the display to implement clock stretching.

See also ClearDisplay().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: INIT.DISPLAY
Header file: intrface.h

 
InitElapsedTime()

void InitElapsedTime(void)

Initializes the 32-bit contents of the system variable TIMESLICE_COUNT to zero.

See also ReadElapsedSeconds(), StartTimeslicer() and StopTimeslicer().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: INIT.ELAPSED.TIME
Header file: mtasker.h

 
InitPIA()

void InitPIA(int ppa_output_flag, int upper_ppc_output_flag)

Writes to the peripheral interface adaptor (PIA) configuration register to set the specified data direction for PPA and the upper half of PPC. If ppa_output_flag is true (non-zero), configures PPA as output; if ppa_output_flag is false (zero), configures PPA as input. Likewise, if upper_ppc_output_flag is true, configures upper PPC as output; if upper_ppc_output_flag is false, configures upper PPC as input. InitPIA() sets the direction of PPB as output and lower PPC as input to ensure compatibility with the built-in keypad and high-current-driver interfaces. If the specified input/output configuration of the PIA is the same as the prior configuration, does not modify the PIA configuration register, and thus does not change the state of any output pins in PPA or upper PPC. If the specified PIA configuration is different than the prior configuration, InitPIA() writes to the PIA's configuration register and this automatically zeros any outputs in PPA or upper PPC. Consult the Hardware Manual data sheet section for details of the PIA operation. InitPIA() may interfere with accesses of the keypad or high-current outputs that are in progress. InitPIA() is called by InitRS485().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: INIT.PIA
Header file: pia.h

 
InitRS485()

void InitRS485(void)

Calls InitPIA() to configure the peripheral interface adaptor (PIA) so that it is consistent with operation of the RS485 circuitry, and then sets the RS485 transceiver to receive mode. Recall that InitPIA() expects to see two input parameters: the first parameter is true if PPA is to be an output, and the second is true if upper PPC is to be an output. InitRS485() sets the first parameter so as to leave the data direction of PPA unchanged, and sets the second parameter passed to InitPIA() to TRUE to configure upper PPC as an output. PPC bit 4 controls the direction of the RS485 data transfer: when bit 4 of PPC is high, the RS485 port is in transmit mode, and when bit 4 of PPC is low, the RS485 port is in receive mode. (NOTE: Make sure that the onboard RS485/RS232 jumper is properly set before attempting to use the RS485 interface).

See also InitPIA(), RS485Receive(), and RS485Transmit().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: INIT.RS485
Header file: comm.h

 
InitSerial2()

void InitSerial2(void)

Initializes the secondary serial port (serial2) which is supported by QED-Forth's software UART using hardware pins PA3 (input) and PA4 (output). Clears the contents of resource variable SERIAL2_RESOURCE to zero, initializes PARITY to OFF (no parity), initializes the transmit and receive buffers (80 characters each, located in the reserved system RAM), initializes the data directions of PA3 and PA4 as input and output, respectively, and locally enables the required interrupts associated with PA3 and PA4. Does not globally enable interrupts. The programmer must separately execute the Baud2() command (to set the baud rate) and execute ENABLE_INTERRUPTS (to globally enable interrupts) before using the serial2 port.

See also UseSerial2() and DisableSerial2().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: INIT.SERIAL2
Header file: comm.h

 
InitSPI()

void InitSPI(void)

Configures and enables the serial peripheral interface (SPI) so that it can transfer data from the 12 bit A/D (AD12) and to the 8 bit digital to analog convertor (DAC). The SPI uses bits 2-5 of PORTD. Initializes the 68HC11 as the SPI "master" with 2 MHz data transfer, with valid data present/sampled on the rising leading edge of the SPI clock. Initializes the contents of DDRD (PORTD direction register) to be compatible with being the master of the SPI (that is, PD2/MISO = input, PD3/MOSI = output, PD4/SCK = output, PD5/SS = output). Also initializes the contents of the resource variable SPI_RESOURCE to zero.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: INIT.SPI
Header file: analog.h

 
InitVitalIRQsOnCold()

void InitVitalIRQsOnCold(void)

Undoes the effect of the NoVitalIRQInit() command, and causes subsequent cold restarts to perform the default action of checking the interrupt vectors for the COP, clock monitor, illegal opcode and OC2 interrupts and initializing them if they do not contain the standard interrupt service vectors. Implementation detail: sets location 0xAE1B in EEPROM to 0xFF.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: INIT.VITAL.IRQS.ON.COLD
Header file: qedsys.h

 
INIT_DEFAULT_HEAP()

INIT_DEFAULT_HEAP()

A macro that initializes a 14.5 Kbyte heap in page 0x0F at addresses 0x4600 to 0x7FFF. This is the default heap located in page fifteen RAM just above the reserved graphics heap.

See also IsHeap(), DEFAULT_HEAPSTART and DEFAULT_HEAPEND.

Type: macro
Header file: heap.h

 
InstallMultitasker()

void InstallMultitasker(void)

Installs the timeslice multitasker timer by initializing the interrupt vector of the output compare 2 (OC2) timer. This command is automatically executed upon a COLD restart (unless the command NoVitalIRQInit() has been executed) and by the command StartTimeslicer(). Because the interrupt vector is in non-volatile EEPROM, it is usually not necessary to invoke this command unless the OC2 interrupt vector has been modified.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: INSTALL.MULTITASKER
Header file: mtasker.h

 
InstallRegisterInits()

void InstallRegisterInits(uchar option, uchar tmsk2, uchar bprot, uchar baud)

Compiles a 6-byte sequence into the EEPROM that specifies the contents to be loaded into the "protected registers" plus the BAUD register after subsequent resets. The protected registers are those that must be initialized within 64 machine cycles after a reset; after that their contents cannot be changed. They are INIT, OPTION, TMSK2, and BPROT. The BAUD register controls the BAUD rate of the primary serial communications interface (serial1), and is included so that a user-specified baud rate can be set upon every restart [see also Baud1AtStartup()]. The INIT register controls the location of the on-chip RAM and the registers. This value is set to 0xB8 (on-chip RAM at 0xB000, and registers at 0x8000); other values are not compatible with QED-Forth. The contents of the other 4 registers may be specified by the user. Once INSTALL.REGISTER.INITS is executed, subsequent resets will cause 0xB8 to be stored in INIT, byte1 in OPTION, byte2 in TMSK2, byte3 in BPROT, and byte4 in BAUD. To undo the effects of this function and return to the default contents of the protected registers use the DefaultRegisterInits() command; see its glossary entry for a list of the default values for each of the registers.

Implementation detail: InstallRegisterInits() writes the pattern 0x13 at location 0xAE06 in the EEPROM. The five bytes following the pattern contain the specified contents of INIT (=0xB8), OPTION, TMSK2, BPROT, and BAUD, respectively.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: INSTALL.REGISTER.INITS
Header file: qedsys.h

 
IRQ_ID

IRQ_ID

A constant that returns the interrupt identity code for the external interrupt request interrupt. Used as an argument for ATTACH().

Type: constant
Related Forth function: IRQ.ID
Header file: interupt.h

 
IsDisplay()

void IsDisplay(int numRows, int numCols, int textMode, int charDisplay, int hitachi)

Based on the specified number of rows, number of columns, and flags that indicate text or graphics mode, character versus graphics display, and Hitachi versus Toshiba graphics controller chip, this routine saves the display configuration in EEPROM so that the LCD display is properly initialized upon subsequent restarts and resets by the InitDisplay() routine which is automatically executed at startup. The encoded information is accessible via the routines CharsPerDisplayLine() and LinesPerDisplay(). When IsDisplay() is executed, numRows and numCols should be expressed as the number of 8x6- or 8x8-pixel characters that the screen can accommodate. The standard width font for Toshiba graphics displays is set by hardware inputs on the display module to either 6 or 8 pixels wide. The standard width font for Hitachi graphics displays is 8 pixels in graphics mode, and can be set to either 6 pixels or 8 pixels wide in text mode. The allowed values of numRows are 2, 4, 8 or 16 lines per display. The allowed values of numCols are 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 30, and 40 characters or bytes per line. The textMode input parameter selects between text mode (if textMode is true/non-zero) and graphics mode (if textMode is false/zero) for graphics displays; character displays always operate in text mode. The charDisplay input parameter selects between a strictly alphanumeric character display if charDisplay is true, and a graphics display if the charDisplay is false. The hitachi input parameter specifies the type of controller that drives the graphics display module. If hitachi is true, a Hitachi 61830 controller chip is assumed; if hitachi is false, we assume a Toshiba 6963 graphics controller chip. NOTE that if a graphics display is specified (charDisplay is false) but the text mode is specified (textMode is true), the data buffer created by InitDisplay() in the DisplayHeap() will be too small to accommodate graphical data. Thus if you want to use both the text and graphics modes of a graphics display, declare a graphics mode display (i.e., with a false textMode flag), and use the DisplayOptions() routine to convert to and from text mode. Then the dimensioned buffer will be large enough for either character or graphical data. The following appropriately named function calls make it easy to specify the most commonly used displays:

void Character4x20(void)  { IsDisplay( 4,20,-1,-1,-1 );  }
void HitachiGraphics128x240(void)  { IsDisplay( 16,30,0,0,-1 );  }
void HitachiText128x240(void)  { IsDisplay( 16,40,-1,0,-1 );  }
void ToshibaGraphics128x240(void)  { IsDisplay( 16,40,0,0,0 );  }
void ToshibaText128x240(void)  { IsDisplay( 16,40,-1,0,0 );  }
void HitachiGraphics128x128(void)  { IsDisplay( 16,16,0,0,-1 );  }
void HitachiText128x128(void)  { IsDisplay( 16,20,-1,0,-1 );  }

The 4x20 character display is the default type that is established by the "special cleanup mode". Remember to execute InitDisplay() after executing IsDisplay() the first time. Note that because IsDisplay() saves the configuration information in EEPROM, you need not execute it each time the board starts up. InitDisplay() is automatically executed each time the QED Board starts up.

Implementation detail: This routine encodes the configuration information in a single byte that is saved at location 0xAE1E in EEPROM.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: IS.DISPLAY
Header file: intrface.h

 
IsDisplayAddress()

void IsDisplayAddress(uint RamAddress)

Configures a graphics display so that the next data write will occur at the specified RamAddress in the display RAM. This routine can be used in conjunction with UpdateDisplayRam() to write data to the "off-screen" RAM that is typically present on a graphics display module. Then modifying the "home address" (upper left location) of the display allows scrolling of data across the display; see the source code of the graphics extension source code file for more details. IsDisplayAddress() has no effect if a character display is installed.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: IS.DISPLAY.ADDRESS
Header file: intrface.h

 
IsHeap()

void IsHeap(xaddr start, xaddr end)

Initializes the heap control variables to set up a heap starting at the specified 32-bit start address and ending 1 byte below the specified 32-bit end address. All of the bytes between start and end must be modifiable RAM. The size of the heap and of individual heap items is limited only by available memory. If the specified heap size (end - start) is greater than or equal to 16 bytes, IsHeap() initializes the user variable CURRENT_HEAP to end, and initializes heap variables (located near the top of the heap) to indicate that the specified memory region can be used for the heap and that there are no allocated heap items. If the specified heap size (end - start) is less than 16 bytes, only the user variable CURRENT_HEAP is initialized, and the heap control variables that are stored in the heap itself are not initialized. This allows tasks to share a heap which has already been initialized without disturbing the values of the heap control variables. Caution: sharing a heap among tasks may lead to hard-to-diagnose multitasking failures. Consult the chapters on multitasking and re-entrant coding in the Software Manual when designing multitasking programs.

See also INIT_DEFAULT_HEAP(), DEFAULT_HEAPSTART, and DEFAULT_HEAPEND.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: IS.HEAP
Header file: heap.h

 
Key()

uchar Key(void)

Waits (if necessary) for receipt of a character from the serial port and places the character on the data stack. Key() is a vectored routine that executes the routine whose xcfa is stored in the user variable UKEY. The default installed routine called is Key1() which receives the character from the primary serial port (supported by the 68HC11's hardware UART). Key2() may be installed in UKEY by UseSerial2() or Serial2AtStartup(); Key2() receives the character from the secondary serial port (supported by QED Forth's software UART and using pins PA3 and PA4).

See also Key1(), Key2() and _readTerminal().

Type: C function; related QED-Forth function name: KEY
Header file: comm.h

 
Key1()

uchar Key1(void)

Waits (if necessary) for receipt of a character from the primary serial port (serial1) and returns the received character. Key1() does not echo the character. The serial1 port is associated with the 68HC11's on-chip hardware UART. Key1() is the default Key() routine installed in the UKEY user variable if Serial1AtStartup() has been executed (and after the special cleanup mode is invoked). If the value in SERIAL_ACCESS is RELEASE_AFTER_LINE, Key1() does not execute GET(SERIAL1_RESOURCE) or RELEASE(SERIAL1_RESOURCE). If SERIAL_ACCESS contains RELEASE_ALWAYS, Key1() GETs and RELEASEs the SERIAL1_RESOURCE. If SERIAL_ACCESS contains RELEASE_NEVER, Key1() GETs but does not RELEASE the SERIAL1_RESOURCE.

See also Key(), UKEY, Key2(), and SERIAL_ACCESS.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: KEY1
Header file: comm.h

 
Key2()

uchar Key2(void)

Waits (if necessary) for receipt of a character from the secondary serial (serial2) port, removes the character from the serial2 input buffer and returns the received character. The serial2 port is supported by QED-Forth's software UART using hardware pins PA3 (input) and PA4 (output). Key2() does not echo the received character. Key2() can be made the default Key() routine installed in the UKEY user variable after each reset or restart by executing Serial2AtStartup(). If the value in SERIAL_ACCESS is RELEASE_AFTER_LINE, Key2() does not execute GET(SERIAL2_RESOURCE) or RELEASE(SERIAL2_RESOURCE). If SERIAL_ACCESS contains RELEASE_ALWAYS, Key2() GETs and RELEASEs the SERIAL2_RESOURCE. If SERIAL_ACCESS contains RELEASE_NEVER, Key2() GETs but does not RELEASE the SERIAL2_RESOURCE.

See also Key(), UKEY, Key1(), and SERIAL_ACCESS.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: KEY2
Header file: comm.h

 
Keypad()

int Keypad(void)

Scans the 4 X 5 keypad or touchscreen and waits for a keypress. Executes Pause() while waiting to give other tasks (if present) a chance to run. Waits until the key is released, then returns the key number. Consult the hardware documentation for a detailed description of key placement. Briefly, in the standard QED Product Design Kit or Industrial Control System orientation with 4 rows and 5 columns and the keypad connector at the bottom, key #0 is in the lower right corner, key #1 is just above it, and key #19 is in the upper left corner. Disables interrupts for 48 cycles (12 µsec) each time a row is scanned.

See also ScanKeypad() and ScanKeypress().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: KEYPAD
Header file: intrface.h

 
Kill()

void Kill(TASK* taskBase, uint taskPage)

Puts ASLEEP and removes from the round robin multitasking loop the task whose TASKBASE address is taskBase. The task to be killed must be installed in the round robin loop when Kill() is called. If it isn't, or if a task attempts to KILL itself, the results are unpredictable. Aborts if taskBase is not in common RAM. Note that input parameter taskPage always equals 0, indicating that the task is located in common RAM.

See also TASK and TASKBASE.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: KILL
Header file: mtasker.h

 
LEFT_PLACES

LEFT_PLACES

A user variable that specifies the number of digits to be displayed to the left of the decimal point when a floating point number is displayed in FIXED format.

See also FPtoString(), PrintFP() and FIXED().

Type: macro
Related Forth function: LEFT.PLACES
Header file: numbers.h

 
LinesPerDisplay()

int LinesPerDisplay(void)

Returns the number of lines in the LCD display. For character displays and for graphics displays being operated in "text mode", the result n equals the number of character lines (rows) in the display (the allowed values are 2, 4, 8 or 16 lines per display). For graphics displays being operated in "graphics mode", the result n equals the number of horizontal pixels on the display (which in turn is 8 times the number of character lines on the display). The type of display and the display mode (text mode vs. graphics mode) are determined by the most recent execution of DisplayOptions() or InitDisplay() (which implements the configuration specified by IS.DISPLAY). The default value of n after executing the "special cleanup mode" is 4, corresponding to the default 4-line by 20-character display. The result returned by this routine is used by BufferPosition(), PutCursor(), UpdateDisplay(), and UpdateDisplayLine().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: LINES/DISPLAY
Header file: intrface.h

 
MAILBOX

MAILBOX

This typedef allocates a 32-bit mailbox in RAM which can be accessed by SEND(), TRY_TO_SEND() and RECEIVE(). The mailbox can hold any non-floating-point "message" up to 32 bits in size; for floating point messages, use FMAILBOX. Example of use:

MAILBOX   comm_flag;
SEND( 0x12345, &comm_flag);

Mailboxes are used in multitasked systems to share information between tasks and to synchronize tasks to one another. If the mailbox's contents equal zero, the mailbox is empty; it contains a message if its contents are non-zero. Before its first use, the mailbox must be initialized to zero. After initialization to zero, the only operators that should access the mailbox are SEND(), TRY_TO_SEND() and RECEIVE().

Type: typedef
Related Forth function: MAILBOX:
Header file: mtasker.h

 
MANTISSA_PLACES

MANTISSA_PLACES

A user variable that holds the number of digits to be displayed in the mantissa when a floating point number is displayed in SCIENTIFIC format.

See also FPtoString(), PrintFP() and FLOATING().

Type: macro
Related Forth function: MANTISSA.PLACES
Header file: numbers.h

 
MAX()

MAX(num1, num2)

Returns the greater of num1 and num2; the inputs can be of any compatible type. This macro is defined as:

#define MAX(A,B)  (((A) > (B)) ? (A) : (B))

Type: macro
Header file: utility.h

 
MicrosecDelay()

void MicrosecDelay(uint numMicroseconds)

Enters a software timing loop for the specified number of microseconds. The function can time to within 2 microseconds resolution for 16 ≤ u ≤ 65535 microseconds. Note that the elapsed time will be increased by the duration of any interrupt routines that are serviced while MicrosecDelay() is running. Consequently, this routine does not guarantee accurate timing when the timesliced multitasker is running.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: MICROSEC.DELAY
Header file: mtasker.h

 
MIN()

MIN(num1, num2)

Returns the lesser of num1 and num2; the inputs can be of any compatible type. This macro is defined as:

#define MIN(A,B)  (((A) < (B)) ? (A) : (B))

Type: macro
Header file: utility.h

 
NEXT_TASK

NEXT_TASK

A user variable (member of the currently active TASK.USER_AREA structure) that contains the 16-bit TASKBASE address of the next task in the round-robin task list; in other words, NEXT_TASK contains the base address of the next task's user area. Before building all of the tasks in the top level routine of a multitasking application, the command

NEXT_TASK = TASKBASE;

must be executed to empty the round-robin task loop (by making NEXT_TASK point to its own TASKBASE address). This is detailed in the commentary accompanying the "Turnkey Application Program" in the QED "Getting Started" book.

See also TASK and TASKBASE.

Type: macro
Related Forth function: NEXT.TASK
Header file: user.h

 
NoAutostart()

void NoAutostart(void)

Undoes the effect of the Autostart() and PriorityAutostart() commands and attempts to ensure that the standard QED-Forth interpreter will be entered after subsequent resets. This command can be executed interactively using QED-Forth syntax by typing from the terminal:

NO.AUTOSTART

Implementation detail: Erases the 0x1357 pattern at location 0xAE00 [put there by Autostart()] in EEPROM, and erases the 0x1357 pattern at location 0x047FFA [put there by PriorityAutostart()] in page 4 of paged memory. Note that the priority_autostart vector at 0x047FFA cannot be erased if the memory is write-protected when NoAutostart() is executed. NoAutostart() is invoked by the special cleanup mode.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: NO.AUTOSTART
Header file: qedsys.h

 
NoVitalIRQInit()

void NoVitalIRQInit(void)

Writes a pattern into EEPROM so that subsequent cold restarts will not initialize the COP, clock monitor, illegal opcode, and OC2 interrupt vectors. This option is provided for programmers interested in installing their own interrupt service routines in any of these four vectors. Can be undone by InitVitalIRQsOnCold(). This function can be interactively executed using QED-Forth syntax by typing from the terminal:

NO.VITAL.IRQ.INIT

Implementation detail: Initializes location 0xAE1B in EEPROM to contain the pattern 0x13.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: NO.VITAL.IRQ.INIT
Header file: qedsys.h

 
NO_SPACES

NO_SPACES

A user variable that contains a flag. If the flag is true (non-zero), leading and trailing spaces are not printed when a floating point number is displayed. If the flag is false (zero), the spaces are printed.

See also FPtoString() and PrintFP().

Type: macro
Related Forth function: NO.SPACES
Header file: numbers.h

 
NUMCOLUMNS()

uint NUMCOLUMNS(FORTH_ARRAY* array_ptr)

A macro that returns the number of columns in the Forth array designated by array_ptr. An unpredictable result is returned if the array is not dimensioned.

Example of use:

FORTH_ARRAY  Myarray;   // define an array named Myarray
DIM(ulong, 3, 5, &Myarray);   // 3 rows x 5 columns of unsigned longs
static uint  number_of_columns;
number_of_columns = NUMCOLUMNS(&Myarray);

See the FORTH_ARRAY glossary entry for a description of how to define an array and its corresponding array_ptr.

See also DIM().

Type: macro
Header file: array.h

 
NUMDIMENSIONS()

uint NUMDIMENSIONS(FORTH_ARRAY* array_ptr)

A macro that returns the number of dimensions in the Forth array designated by array_ptr. The result is typically 2, because the DIM() macro specifies 2-dimensional arrays. An unpredictable result is returned if the array is not dimensioned.

Example of use:

FORTH_ARRAY  Myarray;   // define an array named Myarray
DIM(ulong, 3, 5, &Myarray);   // 3 rows x 5 columns of unsigned longs
static uint  number_of_dimensions;
number_of_dimensions= NUMDIMENSIONS(&Myarray);

See the FORTH_ARRAY glossary entry for a description of how to define an array and its corresponding array_ptr.

See also DIM().

Type: macro
Header file: array.h

 
NumInputChars()

int NumInputChars(void)

Returns the number of characters in the input queue of the secondary serial port (serial2). In other words, returns the number of characters that have been received by the serial2 input interrupt service routine that have not yet been removed from the circular input buffer by Key2(). The default serial2 input buffer holds 80 characters and is located in the system RAM. The serial2 port is supported by a software UART using hardware pins PA3 (input) and PA4 (output).

Type: _forth function
Forth name: #INPUT.CHARS
Header file: comm.h

 
NumOutputChars()

int NumOutputChars(void)

Returns the number of characters in the output queue of the secondary serial port (serial2). In other words, returns the number of characters that have been placed in the output buffer by Emit2() that have not yet been removed from the circular output buffer by the serial2 output interrupt service routine. The default serial2 output buffer holds 80 characters and is located in the system RAM. The serial2 port is supported by the software UART using hardware pins PA3 (input) and PA4 (output).

Type: _forth function
Forth name: #OUTPUT.CHARS
Header file: comm.h

 
NUMROWS()

uint NUMROWS(FORTH_ARRAY* array_ptr)

A macro that returns the number of rows in the Forth array designated by array_ptr. An unpredictable result is returned if the array is not dimensioned.

Example of use:

FORTH_ARRAY  Myarray;   // define an array named Myarray
DIM(ulong, 3, 5, &Myarray);   // 3 rows x 5 columns of unsigned longs
static uint  number_of_rows;
number_of_rows = NUMROWS(&Myarray);

See the FORTH_ARRAY glossary entry for a description of how to define an array and its corresponding array_ptr.

See also DIM().

Type: macro
Header file: array.h

 
OC1_ID

OC1_ID

A constant that returns the interrupt identity code for output compare 1. This interrupt can control the action of port bits PA3-PA7. Used as an argument for ATTACH().

Type: constant
Related Forth function: OC1.ID
Header file: interupt.h

 
OC2_ID

OC2_ID

A constant that returns the interrupt identity code for output compare 2. This interrupt can control the action of port bit PA6. Used as an argument for ATTACH(). Note that the OC2 interrupt is used by the timeslice multitasker; if you wish to use it for another purpose, make sure that you do not need any of the services of the timeslicer or elapsed-time clock.

See also InitVitalIRQsOnCold() and InstallTimeslicer().

Type: constant
Related Forth function: OC2.ID
Header file: interupt.h

 
OC3_ID

OC3_ID

A constant that returns the interrupt identity code for output compare 3. This interrupt can control the action of port bit PA5. Used as an argument for ATTACH().

Type: constant
Related Forth function: OC3.ID
Header file: interupt.h

 
OC4_ID

OC4_ID

A constant that returns the interrupt identity code for output compare 4. This interrupt can control the action of port bit PA4. Used as an argument for ATTACH(). Note that OC4 and PA4 are used by the optional secondary serial port supported by the QED-Forth software UART; if you are not using the secondary serial port, you may use freely use OC4 and PA4.

Type: constant
Related Forth function: OC4.ID
Header file: interupt.h

 
PAD

PAD

A macro that returns the 16-bit start address of the PAD scratchpad area in the active task's task-private area in common RAM. The 32 bytes below PAD are used for floating point and integer string/number conversion, and the 88 bytes above PAD are available as scratchpad memory for the programmer (Note that the QED-Forth routines ASK.NUMBER, ASK.FNUMBER, INPUT.STRING, and RECEIVE.HEX write text strings into the PAD buffer; however, this should not be a problem for C-programmed applications).

Type: macro
Related Forth function: PAD
Header file: user.h

 
PageToFlash()

void PageToFlash(int source_page)

Transfers the 32 Kbyte contents of the specified RAM source_page to the parallel page in flash. If the current memory map is the "download map", then valid source pages are 4, 5, or 6: page 4 RAM is transferred to page 1 flash, page 5 RAM is transferred to page 2 flash, and page 6 RAM is transferred to page 3 flash. If the current memory map is the "standard map", then valid source pages are 1, 2, or 3: page 1 RAM is transferred to page 4 flash, page 2 RAM is transferred to page 5 flash, and page 3 RAM is transferred to page 6 flash. An "invalid input parameter" error is issued if an invalid source_page is specified. A "can't program flash" error is issued if the flash cannot be programmed. On the QED-Flash Board, make sure that the "Write Enable Flash" DIP switch # 2 is ON and that DIP switches 3 and 4 are also ON. This function uses the 68HC11's on-chip RAM at hex B200 to B3CF to manage the write to the flash (the real-time clock and C/Forth interrupt stack reserve the bytes at B3D0 to B3FF). The remaining on-chip RAM at B000 to B1FF remains available to the user.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: PAGE.TO.FLASH
Header file: flash.h

 
PageToRAM()

void PageToRAM(int source_page)

Transfers the 32 Kbyte contents of the specified flash source_page to the parallel page in RAM. If the current memory map is the "download map", then valid source pages are 1, 2, or 3: page 1 flash is transferred to page 4 RAM, page 2 flash is transferred to page 5 RAM, and page 3 flash is transferred to page 6 RAM. If the current memory map is the "standard map", then valid source pages are 4, 5, or 6: page 4 flash is transferred to page 1 RAM, page 5 flash is transferred to page 2 RAM, and page 6 flash is transferred to page 3 RAM. An "invalid input parameter" error is issued if an invalid source_page is specified.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: PAGE.TO.RAM
Header file: flash.h

 
PAGE_LATCH

PAGE_LATCH

A constant that returns 0x8002 which is the address of the page latch whose contents indicate the current page.

See THIS_PAGE which returns the contents of the PAGE_LATCH. In general, the PAGE_LATCH may be read but not written to by application programs; only routines that are located in common memory (addresses above 0x8000) are allowed to write to the PAGE_LATCH.

Type: constant
Forth name: (PAGE.LATCH)
Header file: types.h

 
PARITY

PARITY

The PARITY variable is set by the programmer to specify the behavior of the secondary serial port (serial2) supported by QED-Forth's software UART. If PARITY is TRUE (non-zero), a parity bit is appended to each transmitted character and a parity bit is expected in each incoming character. The level of the transmitted parity bit is set by the system variable PARITY_OUT, and the value of the parity bit of the most recently received character is stored in the system variable PARITY_IN. PARITY is initialized to FALSE (zero) by InitSerial2() and UseSerial2() and at each reset or restart.

Type: macro
Related Forth function: PARITY
Header file: comm.h

 
PARITY_IN

PARITY_IN

A system variable that equals the value of the parity bit of the character most recently received by the secondary serial port (serial2, supported by the software UART) if PARITY is true (non-zero). If the incoming parity bit was high, PARITY_IN equals 1; otherwise it equals 0. The contents are available to the programmer if parity checking of incoming data is required; the software UART does not check for correct parity.

See also PARITY.

Type: macro
Related Forth function: PARITY.IN
Header file: comm.h

 
PARITY_OUT

PARITY_OUT

A system variable that specifies the value of the parity bit of the character to be sent next by the secondary serial port (serial2, supported by the software UART) if PARITY is true. If the contents of PARITY are TRUE (non-zero) and the least significant byte of PARITY_OUT is non-zero, then the parity bit of the next outgoing character is set to one. If the contents of PARITY are TRUE and the least significant byte of PARITY_OUT is zero, then the parity bit of the next outgoing character is set to zero. The value of PARITY_OUT is not modified by the serial2 routines, and the application program must perform any required parity calculations.

See also PARITY.

Type: macro
Related Forth function: PARITY.OUT
Header file: comm.h

 
Pause()

void Pause(void)

Stacks the state of the current task and passes control to the next AWAKE task in the round-robin task list. You can embed calls to Pause() in any task when you wish to give other tasks a chance to run. Pause() may be used in multitasked systems whether or not the timeslicer is active. Pause() switches tasks in (27 + 3.25n) microseconds, where n is the number of ASLEEP tasks encountered in the round robin task list. Of this time, interrupts are disabled for (20 + 3.25n) microseconds.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: PAUSE
Header file: mtasker.h

 
PauseOnKey()

void PauseOnKey(void)

Suspends execution of the calling function when a character is received and, with the exceptions noted below, resumes execution of the calling function when a second character is received. Typically coded into a loop structure to allow control of execution during debugging, or to control a data dump. PauseOnKey() checks whether a character has been received. If no character has been received, it does nothing. If a character has been received and it is a carriage return, executes Abort() which clears the stacks and returns to the QED-Forth interpreter or the autostart routine (if installed). If the character received is a . (dot) executes QUIT which returns to the QED-Forth interpreter without clearing the data stack. If any other character is received, suspends execution until another character other than carriage return or . is received. This function effectively responds to XON/XOFF flow Control-Characters from a host terminal; a function running on the QED Board that dumps data and calls PauseOnKey() repeatedly will pause when the XOFF is received and resume when XON is received. PauseOnKey() does not know that the XON/XOFF characters are special; it just stops when receiving the first and resumes after the second.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: PAUSE.ON.KEY
Header file: comm.h

 
PIAChangeBits()

void PIAChangeBits(uchar data, uchar mask, xaddr address)

At the byte specified by address, modifies the bits specified by 1's in the mask parameter to have the values indicated by the corresponding bits in the data parameter. In other words, mask specifies the bits at address that are to be modified, and data specifies the final state of the modified bits. Disables interrupts for 48 cycles (12 microseconds) to ensure an uninterrupted read/modify/write operation. This routine inserts a wait state to accommodate the slow timing of the Peripheral Interface Adaptor (PIA) chip, and should be used in place of ChangeBits() to access any PIA register on a QED board that is clocked at 16 MHz. Use one of the macros PPA_ADDRESS, PPB_ADDRESS, or PPC_ADDRESS as the input address parameter.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: PIA.CHANGE.BITS
Header file: pia.h

 
PIAClearBits()

void PIAClearBits(uchar mask, uchar address)

For each bit of mask that is set, clears the corresponding bit of the 8 bit value at the specified address in the QED Board's I/O region at 0x8080-80FF, inserting a wait state to accommodate the slow timing of the Peripheral Interface Adaptor (PIA) chip. Disables interrupts for 33 cycles (8.25 microseconds) to ensure an uninterrupted read/modify/write operation. This routine should be used in place of ClearBits() to access any PIA register on a QED board that is clocked at 16 MHz. Use one of the macros PPA_ADDRESS, PPB_ADDRESS, or PPC_ADDRESS as the input address parameter.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: PIA.CLEAR.BITS
Header file: pia.h

 
PIAFetch()

uchar PIAFetch(xaddr address)

Fetches the byte stored at the specified address in the QED Board's I/O region at 0x8080-80FF, inserting a wait state to accommodate the slow timing of the Peripheral Interface Adaptor (PIA) chip. This routine should be used to access any PIA register on a QED board that is clocked at 16 MHz. The routine disables interrupts for 22 cycles (5.5 microseconds). Use one of the macros PPA_ADDRESS, PPB_ADDRESS, or PPC_ADDRESS as the input address parameter.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: PIA.C@
Header file: pia.h

 
PIASetBits()

void PIASetBits(uchar mask, uchar address)

For each bit of mask that is set, sets the corresponding bit of the 8 bit value at the specified address in the QED Board's I/O region at 0x8080-80FF, inserting a wait state to accommodate the slow timing of the Peripheral Interface Adaptor (PIA) chip. Disables interrupts for 31 cycles (7.75 microseconds) to ensure an uninterrupted read/modify/write operation. This routine should be used in place of SetBits() to access any PIA register on a QED board that is clocked at 16 MHz. Use one of the macros PPA_ADDRESS, PPB_ADDRESS, or PPC_ADDRESS as the input address parameter.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: PIA.SET.BITS
Header file: pia.h

 
PIAStore()

void PIAStore(char c, xaddr address)

Stores c at the specified address in the QED Board's I/O region at 0x8080-80FF, inserting a wait state to accommodate the slow timing of the Peripheral Interface Adaptor (PIA) chip. This routine should be used to access any PIA register on a QED board that is clocked at 16 MHz. The routine disables interrupts for 27 cycles (6.75 microseconds). Use one of the macros PPA_ADDRESS, PPB_ADDRESS, or PPC_ADDRESS as the input address parameter.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: PIA.C!
Header file: pia.h

 
PIAToggleBits()

void PIAToggleBits(uchar mask, uchar address)

For each bit of mask that is set, reverses the corresponding bit of the 8 bit value at the specified address in the QED Board's I/O region at 0x8080-80FF, inserting a wait state to accommodate the slow timing of the Peripheral Interface Adaptor (PIA) chip. Disables interrupts for 31 cycles (7.75 microseconds) to ensure an uninterrupted read/modify/write operation. This routine should be used in place of ToggleBits() to access any PIA register on a QED board that is clocked at 16 MHz. Use one of the macros PPA_ADDRESS, PPB_ADDRESS, or PPC_ADDRESS as the input address parameter.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: PIA.TOGGLE.BITS
Header file: pia.h

 
PORTA

PORTA

A macro that returns the contents of the 8 bit PortA register at address 0x8000 in the 68HC11. This port is available to the user and is associated with various counting and timing functions. To read the input pins of PORTA, simply use the PORTA macro in an expression or as the right hand side of an assignment statement. If no output compare interrupts are controlling the states of the PORTA pins, PORTA can be used as the left-hand side of a simple assignment statement to control the PORTA outputs. However, if output compare interrupts are controlling the states of the PORTA pins or if the secondary UART is in use, uninterruptable operators [such as the Forth functions SetBits() and ClearBIts(), or corresponding C functions defined with the _protect keyword] must be used to modify the available port bits; otherwise, unpredictable results can occur. Note that the software UART that implements the secondary serial port uses bits 3 and 4 of PORTA, so care must be taken not to alter the direction or state of these bits if the secondary serial port is in use. The DDRA register sets the data direction of the pins in PORTA.

Type: macro
Related Forth function: PORTA
Header file: qedregs.h

 
PORTD

PORTD

A macro that returns the contents of the 8 bit PORTD register at address 0x8008 in the 68HC11. This port implements the primary serial channel on bits 0 and 1, and the serial peripheral interface (SPI) on bits 2-5 which controls the onboard 12 bit A/D and 8 bit D/A.

See also InitSPI() and SPIOff().

Type: macro
Related Forth function: PORTD
Header file: qedregs.h

 
PORTE

PORTE

A macro that returns the contents of the 8 bit PORTE register at address 0x800A in the 68HC11. This port can either be used as an 8 channel 8 bit A/D convertor, or as an octal digital input port.

See also AD8On() and AD8Off().

Type: macro
Related Forth function: PORTE
Header file: qedregs.h

 
PPA

PPA

A macro that represents the contents of the 8 bit PPA (Peripheral Port A) register at address 0x8080 in the peripheral interface adaptor (PIA). PPA should be accessed via the functions PIAStore(), PIAFetch(), PIAChangeBits(), PIAClearBits(), PIASetBits(), and PIAToggleBits() which automatically insert the recommended wait states to accommodate the slow PIA timing. Port PPA is available to the user and is initialized to all inputs upon each reset or restart.

See also PPA_ADDRESS.

Type: macro
Related Forth function: PPA
Header file: pia.h

 
PPA_ADDRESS

PPA_ADDRESS

A macro that returns the 32-bit xaddress 0x008080 of the 8 bit PPA (Peripheral Port A) register in the peripheral interface adaptor (PIA). This port is available to the user and is initialized to all inputs upon each reset or restart. PPA_ADDRESS is typically used as an input parameter for the functions PIAStore(), PIAFetch(), PIAChangeBits(), PIAClearBits(), PIASetBits(), and PIAToggleBits().

See InitPIA() to set the direction of this port as input or output.

Type: macro
Related Forth function: PPA
Header file: pia.h

 
PPB

PPB

A macro that returns the contents of the 8 bit PPB (Peripheral Port B) register at address 0x8081 in the peripheral interface adaptor (PIA). Note that the bottom 5 bits of this port are used as the keypad strobe outputs, and the upper 3 bits of PPB control the high current driver outputs. This port is initialized to all outputs upon each reset or restart, or whenever InitPIA() is called. PPB should be accessed via the functions PIAStore(), PIAFetch(), PIAChangeBits(), PIAClearBits(), PIASetBits(), and PIAToggleBits(), SetHighCurrent() and ClearHighCurrent() which automatically insert the recommended wait states to accommodate the slow PIA timing.

See also PPB_ADDRESS.

Type: macro
Related Forth function: PPB
Header file: pia.h

 
PPB_ADDRESS

PPB_ADDRESS

A macro that returns the 32-bit xaddress 0x008081 of the 8 bit PPB (Peripheral Port B) register in the peripheral interface adaptor (PIA). Note that the bottom 5 bits of this port are used as the keypad strobe outputs, and the upper 3 bits of PPB control the high current driver outputs. This port is initialized to all outputs upon each reset or restart, or whenever InitPIA() is called. PPB_ADDRESS is typically used as an input parameter for the functions PIAStore(), PIAFetch(), PIAChangeBits(), PIAClearBits(), PIASetBits(), and PIAToggleBits().

Type: macro
Related Forth function: PPB
Header file: pia.h

 
PPC

PPC

A macro that returns the contents of the 8 bit PPC (Peripheral Port C) register at address 0x8082 in the peripheral interface adaptor (PIA). Note that the lower 4 bits of this port are dedicated to the keypad/display interface inputs, and bit 4 (the lowest bit in the upper nibble) controls the RS485 transceiver direction if RS485 is in use. Port PPC is initialized as all inputs upon each reset or restart, and the lower nibble of PPC is configured as input whenever InitPIA() is called. PPC should be accessed via the functions PIAStore(), PIAFetch(), PIAChangeBits(), PIAClearBits(), PIASetBits(), and PIAToggleBits() which automatically insert the recommended wait states to accommodate the slow PIA timing. If RS485 is in use, it is recommended that the latter four uninterruptable operators be used to alter the state of available output bits in PPC; this makes the code more robust with respect to multitasking and interrupts.

See also InitPIA(), InitRS485(), and PPC_ADDRESS.

Type: macro
Related Forth function: PPC
Header file: pia.h

 
PPC_ADDRESS

PPC_ADDRESS

A macro that returns the 32-bit xaddress 0x008082 of the 8 bit PPC (Peripheral Port C) register in the peripheral interface adaptor (PIA). Note that the lower 4 bits of this port are dedicated to the keypad/display interface inputs, and bit 4 (the lowest bit in the upper nibble) controls the RS485 transceiver direction if RS485 serial communications are in use. PPC is initialized as all inputs upon each reset or restart, and the lower nibble of PPC is configured as input whenever InitPIA() is called. PPC_ADDRESS is typically used as an input parameter for the functions PIAStore(), PIAFetch(), PIAChangeBits(), PIAClearBits(), PIASetBits(), and PIAToggleBits(). If RS485 is in use, it is recommended that the latter four uninterruptable operators be used to alter the state of available output bits in PPC; this makes the code more robust with respect to multitasking and interrupts.

See also InitPIA() and InitRS485().

Type: macro
Related Forth function: PPC
Header file: pia.h

 
PrintFP()

void PrintFP(float ansi_fp_num)

Displays the specified floating point number using the format specified by the most recent execution of FIXED(), SCIENTIFIC(), or FLOATING(). FLOATING format is the default after a COLD restart. If the specified format is FIXED() and if the ansi_fp_num does not fit in the allowed number of LEFT_PLACES and RIGHT_PLACES, PrintFP() prints the string "won'tfit".

See the glossary entry for FPtoString() for a detailed description of the FIXED(), SCIENTIFIC() and FLOATING() formats.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: PrintFP
Header file: numbers.h

 
PriorityAutostart()

void PriorityAutostart( void(*action)(), uint actionPage)

Compiles a 6-byte sequence at locations 0x7FFA-7FFF on page 4 so that upon subsequent restarts and Abort()s, the action routine having the specified execution address will be automatically called. This allows a finished application to be automatically entered upon power up and resets. This function is typically executed from the terminal using QED-Forth syntax by typing:

CFA.FOR  MAIN  PRIORITY.AUTOSTART

after a C program has been downloaded as described in the "Turnkey Application Program" example in the documentation.

In contrast to the EEPROM-based Autostart() function, the PriorityAutostart() vector is located in paged memory which is in flash memory in turnkeyed "production" boards. Thus PriorityAutostart() facilitates the autostarting of flash-based systems. PRIORITY.AUTOSTART is Flash smart; it writes to page 4 whether page 4 addresses RAM or Flash at the time. In the standard map PRIORITY.AUTOSTART writes directly to Flash in page 4. In the download memory map it also writes to page 4, now RAM. Subsequently page 4 can be copied to Flash and the Flash readdressed onto page 4 in the standard map.

Implementation detail: At location 0x7FFA on page 4, PriorityAutostart() writes the pattern 1357 followed by the four byte xcfa; make sure that page 4 is not write protected when executing PriorityAutostart(). Upon every reset, restart or runtime error, the Abort() function is called. Abort() checks the priority autostart vector first and executes the specified routine (if any). If no priority autostart routine is posted or if the specified routine terminates, Abort() then checks the EEPROM-based autostart vector and executes the specified routine (if any). If no autostart routine is posted or if the specified routine terminates, Abort() then invokes QUIT which is the QED-Forth interpreter. To undo the effects of this command and return to the default startup action, make sure that page 4 is un-write-protected RAM and call NoAutostart() which clears both the priority autostart and the EEPROM-based autostart vectors. To recover from the installation of a buggy priority autostart routine if page 4 is RAM, make sure that page 4 is not write-protected and invoke the special cleanup mode (consult the Manual).

See also Autostart() and NoAutostart().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: PRIORITY.AUTOSTART
Header file: qedsys.h

 
PULSE_EDGE_ID

PULSE_EDGE_ID

A constant that returns the interrupt identity code for the pulse accumulator input edge detector which is associated with port bit PA7. Used as an argument for ATTACH().

Type: constant
Related Forth function: PULSE.EDGE.ID
Header file: interupt.h

 
PULSE_OVERFLOW_ID

PULSE_OVERFLOW_ID

A constant that returns the interrupt identity code for the pulse accumulator overflow detector which is associated with port bit PA7. Used as an argument for ATTACH().

Type: constant
Related Forth function: PULSE.OVERFLOW.ID
Header file: interupt.h

 
PutCursor()

void PutCursor(int line, int column)

Positions the LCD display cursor at the line number specified by line and the character number specified by column. The next character or graphical byte sent to the display by the CharToDisplay() routine will appear at the specified cursor position, and then the cursor position will automatically increment. The input parameters line and column are 0 based (that is, the top line on the display is line#0, and the left-most character on each line is column#0). PutCursor() clamps line to one less than LinesPerDisplay(), and clamps n2 to one less than CharsPerDisplayLine(). The line number follows the same rules explained in the description of BufferPosition(): for a graphics-style display the line number is interpreted differently depending on whether the display is being used in "text mode" or "graphics mode". In text mode, line corresponds to the character line number; in graphics mode, line corresponds to the pixel line number which is 8 times the character line number. Note that the cursor may not be visible, and is never visible in graphics mode; see DisplayOptions(). Also note that after the cursor reaches the end of a line it may skip to the start of a line elsewhere on the display. This routine intermittently disables interrupts for 28 cycles (7 µsec) per command byte to implement clock stretching.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: PUT.CURSOR
Header file: intrface.h

 
Random()

int Random(void)

Generates and returns a pseudo-random 16bit integer. The result is also stored in the user variable RANDOM_SEED.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: RANDOM
Header file: numbers.h

 
RANDOM_SEED

RANDOM_SEED

A user variable that equals the last 16-bit number generated by Random(). Storing a specific integer (a "seed") into RANDOM_SEED leads to the generation of a reproducible series of pseudo-random numbers by repeated calls to Random(). This may be useful for debugging functions that use random numbers.

See also Random().

Type: macro
Related Forth function: RANDOM#
Header file: numbers.h

 
ReadElapsedSeconds()

ulong ReadElapsedSeconds(void)

Returns the elapsed number of seconds since the timeslice clock was initialized to zero by InitElapsedTime().

See also TIMESLICE_COUNT, StartTimeslicer(), and ChangeTaskerPeriod().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: READ.ELAPSED.SECONDS
Header file: mtasker.h

 
ReadWatch()

void ReadWatch(void)

Reads the battery-operated real-time clock (if present), storing the time, day, and date in the 8-byte watch_results structure located at address 0xB3F8. The stack items, their allowed ranges, and the structure elements that hold the specified contents are as follows:

description      range   result is in structure element:
year         0 - 99   WATCH_YEAR
month         1 - 12   WATCH_MONTH
date         1 - 31   WATCH_DATE
day of week      1 -  7   WATCH_DAY
hour of day      0 - 23   WATCH_HOUR
minute after the hour   0 - 59   WATCH_MINUTE
seconds after the minute 0 - 59   WATCH_SECONDS
hundredths of seconds   0 - 99   WATCH_HUNDREDTH_SECONDS

Example of use:

int hour, day, date;   // static variables to hold current time
ReadWatch();   // get current time into watch_results structure
hour = WATCH_HOUR;   // assign from the structure into variables
day  = WATCH_DAY;
date = WATCH_DATE;

Resolution is better than +/- 1 minute per month. Once correctly set, the watch handles the differing numbers of days in each month, and correctly handles leap years. ReadWatch() uses the top 16 bytes of on-chip RAM at 0xB3F0-B3FF as a scratchpad buffer. The function disables interrupts for 0.5 msec. NOTE: a non-maskable interrupt such as XIRQ or RESET that occurs during a watch access can cause a crash, because the common memory cannot be accessed while the watch is being set or read.

See also SetWatch()

Type: _forth function
Forth name: READ.WATCH
Header file: watch.h

 
RECEIVE()

long RECEIVE(long* mailboxAddr)

If mailboxAddr is empty (ie., if it contains a 32-bit zero), executes Pause() until the mailbox contains a message. If mailboxAddr contains a message (that is, if it does not contain zero), returns the contents of mailboxAddr and stores a zero into mailboxAddr to indicate that the message has been received and that the mailbox is now empty. To receive and send floating point messages, use FRECEIVE() and FSEND(). RECEIVE() disables interrupts for 26 to 61 cycles (6.5 to 15.25 microseconds) to ensure that the state of the mailbox is correctly determined.

See also SEND() and MAILBOX.

Type: macro
Related Forth function: RECEIVE
Header file: mtasker.h

 
Receive()

long Receive(long* mailboxAddr, uint mailboxPage)

A subsidiary function called by the recommended macro RECEIVE(); see RECEIVE().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: RECEIVE
Header file: mtasker.h

 
RELEASE()

void RELEASE(xaddr* resourceAddr)

If the current task owns the resource variable referenced by resourceAddr (that is, if resourceAddr contains the current task's TASKBASE address), releases the resource by storing zero in xresource. Otherwise, does nothing; this prevents a task from RELEASEing a resource controlled by another task. Interrupts are not disabled and Pause() is not executed.

See also GET() and RESOURCE.

Type: macro
Related Forth function: RELEASE
Header file: mtasker.h

 
Release()

void Release(xaddr* resourceAddr, uint resourcePage)

A subsidiary function called by the recommended macro RELEASE(); see RELEASE().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: RELEASE
Header file: mtasker.h

 
RELEASE_AFTER_LINE

RELEASE_AFTER_LINE

A constant which is the default value stored into the SERIAL_ACCESS user variable. If stored into (assigned to) SERIAL_ACCESS, prevents the low level I/O functions Key() Emit() and AskKey() from executing GET() or RELEASE() on the active serial resource variable. Rather, the task program installed by ACTIVATE() is responsible for executing GET() before each line is received and RELEASE() after each line is received. This SERIAL_ACCESS method is used by the QED-Forth interpreter to virtually eliminate the overhead required to GET and RELEASE during downloads, and allows the interpreter to run at a sustainable 19.2 Kbaud.

CAUTION: In multitasking systems using both serial ports Serial1 and Serial2, the application code should include the command

   SERIAL_ACCESS = RELEASE_ALWAYS;

or SERIAL_ACCESS = RELEASE_NEVER;

before building the tasks. This prevents contention that can occur if the default RELEASE_AFTER_LINE option is installed in the SERIAL_ACCESS user variable.

See also SERIAL_ACCESS, RELEASE_NEVER, and RELEASE_ALWAYS.

Type: constant
Related Forth function: RELEASE.AFTER.LINE
Header file: mtasker.h

 
RELEASE_ALWAYS

RELEASE_ALWAYS

A constant. Returns a value that, when stored into the SERIAL_ACCESS user variable, causes the low level I/O functions Key() Emit() and AskKey() to always RELEASE the serial resource variable after each I/O operation. This is useful if the task that has control over the serial line wants to share access to the serial port.

See also SERIAL_ACCESS, RELEASE_NEVER, and RELEASE_AFTER_LINE.

CAUTION: You may find that storing RELEASE_ALWAYS into the QED-Forth task's SERIAL_ACCESS variable decreases the sustainable download baud rate. To assure the highest sustainable download baud rate, it is recommended that RELEASE_AFTER_LINE be stored in the QED-Forth task's SERIAL_ACCESS variable during program development.

CAUTION: In multitasking systems using both serial ports Serial1 and Serial2, the application code should include the command

   SERIAL_ACCESS = RELEASE_ALWAYS;

or SERIAL_ACCESS = RELEASE_NEVER;

before building the tasks. This prevents contention that can occur if the default RELEASE_AFTER_LINE option is installed in the SERIAL_ACCESS user variable.

Type: constant
Related Forth function: RELEASE.ALWAYS
Header file: mtasker.h

 
RELEASE_NEVER

RELEASE_NEVER

A constant. Returns a value that, when stored into the SERIAL_ACCESS user variable, prevents the low level I/O functions Key() Emit() and AskKey() from executing the command RELEASE(SERIAL). This is useful if the task that has control over the serial line does not want to share access to the serial port.

See also SERIAL_ACCESS, RELEASE_ALWAYS, and RELEASE_AFTER_LINE.

CAUTION: You may find that storing RELEASE_NEVER into the QED-Forth task's SERIAL_ACCESS variable decreases the sustainable download baud rate. To assure the highest sustainable download baud rate, it is recommended that RELEASE_AFTER_LINE be stored in the QED-Forth task's SERIAL_ACCESS variable during program development.

CAUTION: In multitasking systems using both serial ports Serial1 and Serial2, the application code should include the command

   SERIAL_ACCESS = RELEASE_ALWAYS;

or SERIAL_ACCESS = RELEASE_NEVER;

before building the tasks. This prevents contention that can occur if the default RELEASE_AFTER_LINE option is installed in the SERIAL_ACCESS user variable.

Type: constant
Related Forth function: RELEASE.NEVER
Header file: mtasker.h

 
RESOURCE

RESOURCE

This typedef allocates a 32-bit resource variable in the common RAM. Use as:

RESOURCE   <name>;

where <name> is any name of your choosing. Resource variables are used in multitasked systems to control access to shared resources (for example, an A/D converter, serial port, block of memory, etc.) When the resource associated with <name> is available, <name> contains zero. When it is controlled by a task (and hence unavailable to other tasks), it contains the TASKBASE address of the controlling task; see the glossary entries for TASK and TASKBASE. Before its first use, the resource variable must be initialized to zero. After initialization to zero, the only operators that should access the resource variable are GET() TRY_TO_GET() and RELEASE(). The following resource variables are pre-defined in the mtasker.h file:

AD8_RESOURCE   SPI_RESOURCE
SERIAL   SERIAL1_RESOURCE   SERIAL2_RESOURCE

See their glossary entries and consult the Multitasking chapter in the Software Manual for further descriptions and examples of use.

Type: typedef
Related Forth function: RESOURCE.VARIABLE:
Header file: mtasker.h

 
RIGHT_PLACES

RIGHT_PLACES

A user variable that holds the number of digits to be displayed to the right of the decimal point when a floating point number is printed in FIXED format.

See also FPtoString(), PrintFP() and FIXED().

Type: macro
Related Forth function: LEFT.PLACES
Header file: numbers.h

 
Room()

ulong Room(void)

Returns the number of bytes available in the HEAP. NOTE: because there is some overhead (up to 12 bytes) associated with adding an item to the heap, you may not be able to dimension a new heap item that requires the exact number of bytes returned by Room().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: ROOM
Header file: heap.h

 
RS485Receive()

void RS485Receive(void)

Clears bit 4 in PPC (of the PIA) to the logic 0 state. If upper PPC has been configured as an output port, this places the RS485 transceiver in the receive mode. NOTE: Make sure that the onboard RS485/RS232 jumper is properly set before attempting to use the RS485 interface.

See also InitRS485() and RS485Transmit().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: RS485.RECEIVE
Header file: comm.h

 
RS485Transmit()

void RS485Transmit(void)

Sets bit 4 in PPC (of the PIA) to the logic 1 state. If upper PPC has been configured as an output port, this places the RS485 transceiver in the transmit mode. NOTE: Make sure that the onboard RS485/RS232 jumper is properly set before attempting to use the RS485 interface.

See also InitRS485() and RS485Receive().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: RS485.TRANSMIT
Header file: comm.h

 
RTI_ID

RTI_ID

A constant that returns the interrupt identity code for the real time interrupt. Used as an argument for ATTACH().

Type: constant
Related Forth function: RTI.ID
Header file: interupt.h

 
ScanKeypad()

int ScanKeypad(void)

Scans the 4 X 5 keypad or touchscreen. If a key is being depressed, calls Pause() and waits until the key is released, then returns the key number (0≤ keynum ≤ 19). If no key is depressed, returns -1. Consult the hardware manual for a detailed description of keypad orientation. Briefly, in the standard QED Product Design Kit and Industrial Control System orientation with 4 rows and 5 columns and the connector at the bottom of the keypad, key #0 is in the lower right corner, key #1 is just above it, and key #19 is in the upper left corner. Disables interrupts for 48 cycles (12 µsec) each time a row is scanned.

See also ScanKeypress() and Keypad().

Type: C function
Related Forth function: ?KEYPAD
Header file: intrface.h

 
ScanKeypress()

int ScanKeypress(void)

Scans the 4 X 5 keypad or touchscreen. If a key is being depressed, returns the key number (0≤ keynum ≤ 19); unlike ScanKeypad(), ScanKeypress() does not wait for the key to be released. If no key is depressed, returns -1. Consult the hardware manual for a detailed description of keypad orientation. Briefly, in the standard QED Product Design Kit or Industrial Control System orientation with 4 rows and 5 columns and the connector at the bottom of the keypad, key #0 is in the lower right corner, key #1 is just above it, and key #19 is in the upper left corner. Disables interrupts for 48 cycles (12 µsec) each time a row is scanned.

See also ScanKeypad() and Keypad().

Type: C function
Related Forth function: ?KEYPRESS
Header file: intrface.h

 
SCIENTIFIC()

void SCIENTIFIC(void)

Sets the default printing format used by PrintFP() and FPtoString() to scientific. For more details, see the glossary entry for FPtoString().

Type: macro
Related Forth function: SCIENTIFIC
Header file: numbers.h

 
SCI_ID

SCI_ID

A constant that returns the interrupt identity code for the asynchronous serial communications interface. Used as an argument for ATTACH().

Type: constant
Related Forth function: RTI.ID
Header file: interupt.h

 
SEND()

void SEND(long message, long * mailboxAddr)

Executes Pause() until the mailbox with extended address mailboxAddr is empty (contains zero) and then stores the 32-bit message in mailboxAddr. The message can be any 32-bit quantity except zero; use FSEND() to send a floating point value as a message. For example, the message can be an array address returned by ARRAYMEMBER() that points to a block of data. To ensure that the state of the mailbox is correctly determined, SEND() disables interrupts for 16 to 50 cycles (4 to 12.5 microseconds).

See also TRY_TO_SEND(), RECEIVE() and MAILBOX.

Type: macro
Related Forth function: SEND
Header file: mtasker.h

 
Send()

void Send(long message, long * mailboxAddr, uint mailboxPage)

A subsidiary function called by the recommended macro SEND(); see SEND().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: SEND
Header file: mtasker.h

 
SERIAL

SERIAL

A constant that returns the address of the resource variable associated with the primary serial I/O port. A synonym for SERIAL1_RESOURCE.

See also SERIAL1_RESOURCE.

Type: macro constant
Related Forth function: SERIAL
Header file: mtasker.h

 
Serial1AtStartup()

void Serial1AtStartup(void)

Initializes a flag in EEPROM which causes the initialization software to install the primary serial port (serial1) as the default serial port used by the QED-Forth interpreter after each reset or restart. The serial1 port is supported by the 68HC11's on-chip hardware UART.

Implementation detail: Sets the contents of address 0xAE1D in EEPROM to 0xFF. Upon each reset or restart, the QED-Forth startup routine checks this byte, and contents of 0xFF cause the UseSerial1() routine to be executed.

See also UseSerial1() and Serial2AtStartup().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: SERIAL1.AT.STARTUP
Header file: comm.h

 
SERIAL1_RESOURCE

SERIAL1_RESOURCE

A constant that returns the address of the resource variable associated with the primary serial I/O port. This resource variable mediates access to the primary serial port (serial1) associated with the 68HC11's on-chip hardware UART. SERIAL1_RESOURCE should be accessed only by the functions GET(), TRY_TO_GET() and RELEASE(). Initialized to zero by UseSerial1() and UseSerial2() and at each reset or restart.

See also RESOURCE.

Type: macro constant
Related Forth function: SERIAL1.RESOURCE
Header file: mtasker.h

 
Serial2AtStartup()

void Serial2AtStartup(int baud)

Initializes a flag in EEPROM which causes the initialization software to install the secondary serial port (serial2) at the specified baud rate as the default serial port used by the QED-Forth interpreter after each reset or restart. The serial2 port is supported by QED-Forth's software UART using hardware pins PA3 (input) and PA4 (output). The specified baud rate must a power of 2 times 75 baud, up to a maximum of 9600 baud. Thus the allowed baud rates for this routine are 75, 150, 300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, and 9600 baud. The effect of this routine is canceled by executing Serial1AtStartup(). Note that the serial2 port can support many more baud rates, but the options have been limited to facilitate setting a reasonable startup baud rate based on a simple implementation as described below. Note also that the maximum baud rate that can be sustained by the serial2 port is 4800 baud; see the glossary entry for Baud2().

Implementation detail: Sets the contents of address 0xAE1D in EEPROM equal to baud/75. Upon each reset or restart, the QED-Forth startup routine checks this byte, and contents equal to an exact power of two cause the UseSerial2() routine to be executed before control is passed to the interpreter or to an autostart routine. Note that UseSerial2() globally enables interrupts during the startup process. If you wish to use the secondary serial port while avoiding this side-effect and maintaining control over the global enabling of interrupts, don't execute Serial2AtStartup(). Rather, have your autostart routine explicitly call UseSerial2() after ensuring that all interrupt service routines are properly initialized.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: SERIAL2.AT.STARTUP
Header file: comm.h

 
SERIAL2_RESOURCE

SERIAL2_RESOURCE

A constant that returns the address of the resource variable that mediates access to the secondary serial port (serial2). The serial2 port is supported by QED-Forth's software UART using hardware pins PA3 (input) and PA4 (output). SERIAL2_RESOURCE should be accessed only by the functions GET(), TRY_TO_GET() and RELEASE(). Initialized to zero by UseSerial1() and UseSerial2() and at each reset or restart.

See also RESOURCE.

Type: macro constant
Related Forth function: SERIAL2.RESOURCE
Header file: mtasker.h

 
SERIAL_ACCESS

SERIAL_ACCESS

SERIAL_ACCESS is a user variable (member of the currently active TASK.USER_AREA structure) that contains a flag that controls when a task GETs and RELEASEs access to the serial resource. If more than one task needs access to the serial I/O port, this flag can help specify which task (if any) gets priority use. If SERIAL_ACCESS contains the value RELEASE_ALWAYS, then each I/O operation by Key() Emit() or AskKey() will GET() the active serial resource before each I/O operation and RELEASE() the active serial resource after each character I/O operation is complete. If SERIAL_ACCESS contains the value RELEASE_NEVER, then I/O operations called by the task always GET() but never RELEASE() the serial resource variable. If SERIAL_ACCESS contains the value RELEASE_AFTER_LINE, then Key() Emit() and AskKey() never GET() or RELEASE() the serial resource. Rather, the QED-Forth interpreter GET()s the serial resource before each line is received and RELEASE()s the serial resource after each line is interpreted. This virtually eliminates the overhead required to GET() and RELEASE() during downloads, and allows the interpreter to run at a sustainable 19200 baud. The default value stored in SERIAL_ACCESS after a COLD restart is RELEASE_AFTER_LINE.

CAUTION: In multitasking systems using both serial ports SERIAL1 and SERIAL2, the application code should include the command

   SERIAL_ACCESS = RELEASE_ALWAYS;

or SERIAL_ACCESS = RELEASE_NEVER;

before building the tasks. This prevents contention that can occur if the default RELEASE_AFTER_LINE option is installed in the SERIAL_ACCESS user variable.

See also SERIAL1_RESOURCE, SERIAL2_RESOURCE, GET(), RELEASE(), Key(), Emit() and AskKey().

Type: macro
Related Forth function: SERIAL.ACCESS
Header file: user.h

 
SetBits()

void SetBits(uchar mask, xaddr address)

For each bit of mask that is set, sets the corresponding bit of the 8 bit value at address. Disables interrupts for ten cycles (2.5 microseconds) to ensure an uninterrupted read/modify/write operation.

See also ClearBits(), ToggleBits(), ChangeBits() and PIASetBits().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: SET.BITS
Header file: xmem.h

 
SetDAC()

void SetDAC(uchar value, uint channel )

Writes the specified data value to the specified channel of the Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC). Note that the eight valid DAC channel numbers are 1 ≤ channel ≤ 8. The data transfer uses the SPI (serial peripheral interface); use InitAD12andDAC() to initialize the SPI interface. To ensure proper operation in a multitasking environment, executes GETSPI_RESOURCE) before writing to the DAC and RELEASE(SPI_RESOURCE) before terminating. Executes in about 125 microseconds.

See also FastSetDAC() and InitAD12andDAC().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: >DAC
Header file: analog.h

 
SetHighCurrent()

void SetHighCurrent(uchar mask)

For each bit of the input mask byte that is set, turns the corresponding high current driver ON (so that it is sinking current). Bits 0-3 in the input mask control the high current drivers named HC0-HC3, respectively. Disables interrupts for 31 cycles (less than 8 microseconds).

See also ClearHighCurrent().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: SET.HIGH.CURRENT
Header file: pia.h

 
SetWatch()

void SetWatch(hundredth_seconds, seconds, minute, hour, day, date, month, year)

Sets the battery-operated real-time clock (if present) to the time, day, and date specified by the input parameters. The input parameters and their allowed ranges are:

description      range
year         0 - 99
month         1 - 12
date         1 - 31
day         1 -  7
hour         0 - 23
minute (after the hour)   0 - 59
seconds (after the minute) 0 - 59
hundredth_seconds   0 - 99

Resolution is better than +/- 1 minute per month. Once correctly set, the watch handles the differing numbers of days in each month, and correctly handles leap years. SetWatch() uses the top 16 bytes of on-chip RAM at B3F0-B3FF as a scratchpad buffer, and disables interrupts for 0.45 msec while accessing the watch.

See also ReadWatch().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: SET.WATCH
Header file: watch.h

 
SIZEOFMEMBER()

uint SIZEOFMEMBER(FORTH_ARRAY* array_ptr)

A macro that returns the number of bytes per element in the Forth array designated by array_ptr. An unpredictable result is returned if the array is not dimensioned.

Example of use:

FORTH_ARRAY  Myarray;   // define an array named Myarray
DIM(ulong, 3, 5, &Myarray);   // 3 rows x 5 columns of unsigned longs
static uint  size_of_each_member;
size_of_each_member = SIZEOFMEMBER(&Myarray);

See the FORTH_ARRAY glossary entry for a description of how to define an array and its corresponding array_ptr.

See also DIM().

Type: macro
Related Forth name: BYTES/ELEMENT
Header file: array.h

 
SpeedToDuty()

int SpeedToDuty(int steps_per_second, int ticks_per_second)

Returns an integer representation of a duty cycle which specifies the step rate of the stepper motor. The first input parameter is the integer number of steps per second if full stepping, or the number of halfsteps per second if half stepping. The second input parameter is the integer number of clock ticks per second; the default is 1000 ticks per second. The integer output parameter can be interpreted as a fraction with the radix point to the left of the most significant bit. A 100% duty cycle is represented by hex 0xFFFF, and this tells the STEP.MANAGER to output a new step pattern on every tick of the interrupt clock (e.g., once per millisecond, corresponding to 1000 (half) steps per second). A duty cycle of hex 0x8000 means a new step pattern is written to the motor port every other clock tick; a duty cycle of hex 0x0100 dictates one step every 256 clock ticks; and a duty cycle of 0000 means corresponds to a stopped state with no step pattern updates.

See the high level source file steppers.c in the Demos_and_Drivers directory of the distribution.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: SPEED.TO.DUTY
Header file: stepper.h

 
SPIOff()

void SPIOff(void)

Disables the serial peripheral interface (SPI) by clearing the SPI enable (SPE) bit in the SPI control register (SPCR). Note that the SPI communicates with the onboard 12 bit A/D and 8 bit DAC; if a custom QED Board has been ordered without these devices installed, then after execution of this routine, PORTD pins PD2-PD5 may be used as standard digital I/O subject to the data direction specified in the DDRD register.

See also InitSPI().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: SPI.OFF
Header file: analog.h

 
SPI_ID

SPI_ID

A constant that returns the interrupt identity code for the synchronous serial peripheral interface (SPI). Used as an argument for ATTACH(). Note that the SPI communicates with the onboard 12 bit A/D and 8 bit DAC if they are installed.

See also InitSPI() and SPIOff().

Type: constant
Related Forth function: SPI.ID
Header file: interupt.h

 
SPI_RESOURCE

SPI_RESOURCE

A constant that returns the address of the resource variable associated with the serial peripheral interface (SPI) which is used for data transfer to and from the 12 bit analog to digital convertor (AD12) and 8 bit digital to analog convertor (DAC). Should be accessed only by the functions GET(), TRY_TO_GET() and RELEASE(). Initialized to zero by InitSPI() and InitAD12andDAC() and at each reset or restart. SPI_RESOURCE is automatically invoked by many of the AD12 and DAC device driver routines.

See also RESOURCE.

Type: macro constant
Related Forth function: SPI.RESOURCE
Header file: mtasker.h

 
StandardMap()

void StandardMap(void)

Sets a flag in EEPROM and changes the state of a latch in the onboard PALs to put the standard memory map into effect on flash-equipped QED-FLASH Boards. After execution of this routine, and upon each subsequent reset or restart, pages 1, 2, and 3 are addressed in the S2 RAM, and pages 4, 5, and 6 are addressed in the S1 flash memory. After code is downloaded to RAM and transferred to flash using the PageToFlash function, establishing the standard map allows code resident on pages 4, 5 and 6 to be executed. To establish the download memory map, see the glossary entry for DownloadMap. Note that the standard map is active after a "factory cleanup" operation.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: STANDARD.MAP
Header file: flash.h

 
StandardReset()

void StandardReset(void)

Undoes the effect of the ColdOnReset() command so that subsequent resets will result in the standard warm-or-cold startup sequence. Note that this function can be executed interactively using QED-Forth syntax by typing from the terminal:

STANDARD.RESET

Implementation detail: sets the flag at location 0xAEC in EEPROM to 0xFF.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: STANDARD.RESET
Header file: qedsys.h

 
StartTimeslicer()

void StartTimeslicer(void)

Starts the timeslice clock based on the Output Compare 2 (OC2) interrupt and begins timeslice multitasking. Initializes the OC2 interrupt vector (if it wasn't already initialized) so that the multitasking executive/elapsed-time clock routine services the interrupt. Enables the OC2 interrupt mask and globally enables interrupts by clearing the I bit in the condition code register of each built task.

Notes:

1. The default timeslice clock period of 5 msec can be changed with the command ChangeTaskerPeriod().

2. StartTimeslicer() does not initialize the value in TIMESLICE_COUNT; execute InitElapsedTime() if you wish to initialize the clock count to zero.

3. After a restart, the system is configured so that timeslice multitasking can begin at any time; if no other tasks have been built, the FORTH_TASK (which is also the task that calls main) is the only task in the task loop.

4. The timeslicer's interrupt service routine disables interrupts for the duration of a task switch which requires 25 microseconds plus 3.25 microseconds for each ASLEEP task encountered in the task list.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: START.TIMESLICER
Header file: mtasker.h

 
STATUS

STATUS

STATUS is the first element in the currently active task's TASK.USER_AREA structure; its contents specify whether the task is ASLEEP or AWAKE. The following example shows how to access the status address of another task that has been defined using the TASK directive:

TASK  AnyTask;   // name and allocate the new task
AnyTask.USER_AREA.user_status = ASLEEP;   // put the task asleep

See the user.h file for a detailed description of all of the user variables, and consult the glossary entries for the constants ASLEEP and AWAKE.

Type: macro
Forth name: STATUS
Header file: user.h

 
StepManager()

void StepManager(void)

Expects the base address of the STATUS.ARRAY in the Y register. Based on the information in the status array and the ramp array (defined in high level source file steppers.c in the Demos_and_Drivers directory of the distribution), for each enabled motor StepManager writes the appropriate step pattern at the specified duty cycle to the motor port to attain the speed specified in the motor's ramp array. This function is meant to be called from a periodic interrupt service routine typically associated with an output compare (OC) interrupt; the default time base is once per millisecond generated by the OC3 interrupt, with a resulting maximum speed of 1000 full- or half-steps per second. This assembly coded routine executes in approximately 120 µs per enabled stepper motor. Thus running four stepper motors at a maximum speed of 1000 full- or half-steps per second requires approximately half of the 68HC11's available time (480 µs interrupt service time every 1000 µs).

See the high level source file steppers.c in the Demos_and_Drivers directory of the distribution. CAUTION: The presence of other interrupt service routines can affect the timing of the step manager, and may affect the smoothness of stepper motor operation.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: STEP.MANAGER
Header file: stepper.h

 
StopTimeslicer()

void StopTimeslicer(void)

Stops the multitasker's timeslice clock by disabling the local Output Compare 2 (OC2) timer interrupt mask. Cooperative task switching involving Pause() is not affected. Note that this command also stops the elapsed-time clock; see TIMESLICE_COUNT and ReadElapsedSeconds().

See also StartTimeslicer()

Type: _forth function
Forth name: STOP.TIMESLICER
Header file: mtasker.h

 
StoreChar()

void StoreChar(char value, xaddr address)

Stores the 8-bit value at the specified extended address. This function is useful for storing data in arrays located in paged memory, where the extended address is returned by ARRAYMEMBER().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: C!
Header file: xmem.h

 
StoreEEChar()

void StoreEEChar(char value, int * addr)

Stores the specified 8-bit value at the specified addr in EEPROM. If addr already contains the specified contents it is not re-programmed; this helps lengthen the lifetime of the EEPROM. Requires 20 msec per programmed byte. Disables interrupts during the programming of each byte. Caution: the prolonged disabling of interrupts by (EEC!) can adversely affect real-time servicing of interrupts including those associated with the secondary serial line.

Example of use:

#pragma  option data=.eeprom   // relocate data section to .eeprom
static uchar numsamples;   // define a "variable" in eeprom
#pragma  option data=.data   // restore data area
StoreEEChar( 8, &numsamples);   // init numsamples to equal 8

Note that this function can be called interactively to initialize EEPROM from the terminal using QED-Forth syntax. For example, assuming that the C program containing the definition of numsamples has been downloaded to the QED Board, you can interactively set numsamples to equal 8 by typing from your terminal:

8  numsamples  (EEC!)

Type: _forth function
Forth name: (EEC!)
Header file: xmem.h

 
StoreEEFloat()

void StoreEEFloat(float value, int * addr)

Stores the specified 32-bit floating point value at the specified addr in EEPROM. The most significant word of val is stored at addr and the least significant word is stored at addr+2. Any byte that already contains the specified contents is not re-programmed; this helps lengthen the lifetime of the EEPROM. Requires 20 msec per programmed byte. Disables interrupts during the programming of each byte. Caution: the prolonged disabling of interrupts by (EE2!) can adversely affect real-time servicing of interrupts including those associated with the secondary serial line.

Example of use:

#pragma  option data=.eeprom   // relocate data section to .eeprom
static float coefficient;   // define a "variable" in eeprom
#pragma  option data=.data   // restore data area
StoreEEFloat( 123.4, &coefficient);   // init coefficient to equal 123.4

Note that this function can be called interactively to initialize EEPROM from the terminal using QED-Forth syntax. For example, assuming that the C program containing the definition of coefficient has been downloaded to the QED Board, you can interactively set coefficient to equal 123.4 by typing from your terminal:

123.4  FP_QtoC  coefficient  (EEF!)

We inserted the FP_QtoC command to convert from QED-Forth floating point representation to the ANSI-C representation.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: (EEF!)
Header file: xmem.h

 
StoreEEInt()

void StoreEEInt(int value, int * addr)

Stores the specified 16-bit value at the specified addr in EEPROM. Any byte that already contains the specified contents is not re-programmed; this helps lengthen the lifetime of the EEPROM. Requires 20 msec per programmed byte, independent of the clock speed. Disables interrupts during the programming of each byte. Caution: the prolonged disabling of interrupts by StoreEEInt() can adversely affect real-time servicing of interrupts including those associated with the secondary serial line.

Example of use:

#pragma  option data=.eeprom   // relocate data section to .eeprom
static int numsamples;   // define a "variable" in eeprom
#pragma  option data=.data   // restore data area
StoreEEInt( 1234, &numsamples);   // init numsamples to equal 1234

Note that this function can be called interactively to initialize EEPROM from the terminal using QED-Forth syntax. For example, assuming that the C program containing the definition of numsamples has been downloaded to the QED Board, you can interactively set numsamples to equal 1234 by typing from your terminal:

1234  numsamples  (EE!)

Type: _forth function
Forth name: (EE!)
Header file: xmem.h

 
StoreEELong()

void StoreEELong(long value, int * addr)

Stores 32-bit value at the specified addr in EEPROM. The most significant word of val is stored at addr and the least significant word is stored at addr+2. Any byte that already contains the specified contents is not re-programmed; this helps lengthen the lifetime of the EEPROM. Requires 20 msec per programmed byte. Disables interrupts during the programming of each byte. Caution: the prolonged disabling of interrupts by (EE2!) can adversely affect real-time servicing of interrupts including those associated with the secondary serial line.

Example of use:

#pragma  option data=.eeprom   // relocate data section to .eeprom
static int numsamples;   // define a "variable" in eeprom
#pragma  option data=.data   // restore data area
StoreEELong( 1234, &numsamples);   // init numsamples to equal 1234

Note that this function can be called interactively to initialize EEPROM from the terminal using QED-Forth syntax. For example, assuming that the C program containing the definition of numsamples has been downloaded to the QED Board, you can interactively set numsamples to equal 1234 by typing from your terminal:

DIN 1234  numsamples  (EE2!)

where the DIN command tells QED-Forth to interpret the following number as a 32-bit long.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: (EE2!)
Header file: xmem.h

 
StoreFloat()

void StoreFloat(float value, xaddr address)

Stores a 32-bit floating point value at the specified extended address. This function is useful for storing data in arrays located in paged memory, where the extended address is returned by ARRAYMEMBER().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: F!
Header file: xmem.h

 
StoreFloatProtected()

void StoreFloatProtected(float value, xaddr address)

Stores the floating point value at the specified extended address. Disables interrupts during the store to ensure that an interrupting routine or task will read valid data. This function is useful for storing data in arrays located in paged memory, where the extended address is returned by ARRAYMEMBER(). Disables interrupts for 28 cycles (7 microseconds) unless the specified 4 bytes straddle a page boundary, in which case interrupts are disabled for approximately 260 cycles. The most significant word of val is stored at address and the least significant is stored at address+2. Note that in paged memory, the address immediately following 0x7FFF is address 0000 on the following page.

See also FetchFloatProtected().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: |F!|
Header file: xmem.h

 
StoreInt()

void StoreInt(int value, xaddr address)

Stores a 16-bit value at the specified extended address. The high order byte is stored at address and the low order byte at address+1. This function is useful for storing data in arrays located in paged memory, where the extended address is returned by ARRAYMEMBER().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: !
Header file: xmem.h

 
StoreLong()

void StoreLong(long value, xaddr address)

Stores a 32-bit value at the specified extended address. The most significant word of val is stored at address and the least significant is stored at address+2. This function is useful for storing data in arrays located in paged memory, where the extended address is returned by ARRAYMEMBER().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: 2!
Header file: xmem.h

 
StoreLongProtected()

void StoreLongProtected(long value, xaddr address)

Stores the 32-bit value at the specified extended address. Disables interrupts during the store to ensure that an interrupting routine or task will read valid data. This function is useful for storing data in arrays located in paged memory, where the extended address is returned by ARRAYMEMBER(). Disables interrupts for 28 cycles (7 microseconds) unless the specified 4 bytes straddle a page boundary, in which case interrupts are disabled for approximately 260 cycles. The most significant word of val is stored at address and the least significant is stored at address+2. Note that in paged memory, the address immediately following 0x7FFF is address 0000 on the following page. For floating point values, use StoreFloatProtected().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: |2!|
Header file: xmem.h

 
StringMove()

void StringMove( xaddr countedStrAddr, xaddr destination, long numBytes)

Moves the contents of the counted string specified by countedStrAddr to the specified 32-bit destination address. Does not move the count byte. The number of characters moved is clamped to a maximum of numBytes bytes. To use this function to move a null-terminated C-style string into paged memory, first convert the string to a Forth-style counted string using CountedString(), and then move it with this function. As explained in the glossary entry for CountedString(), the string should contain less than 86 characters.

Example of use: The following code copies a null-terminated "C-style" string to a buffer in paged memory:

#define DESTINATION = ( (xaddr) 0x071000)   // buffer in page 7 RAM
#define MAX_STRING_CHARS   85
char*  source_string = "This is the string we will move";
xaddr  counted_string = CountedString(source_string, THIS_PAGE);
StringMove(counted_string, DESTINATION, MAX_STRING_CHARS);

See also CountedString().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: $MOVE
Header file: xmem.h

 
StringToDisplay()

void StringToDisplay(char* string, uint stringPage, int linenum, int column)

For most programs, the macro form named STRING_TO_DISPLAY() is recommended; see its glossary entry. The function StringToDisplay() should be used when the specified string resides on a different memory page than the routine that invokes StringToDisplay(), for example in an application that is compiled on multiple pages on the QED Board. Pass the function the correct stringPage, and set the upper byte of the stringPage = 0xFF to signal that the string is a null-terminated "C-style" string as opposed to a counted "Forth-style" string.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: $>DISPLAY
Header file: intrface.h

 
STRING_TO_DISPLAY()

void STRING_TO_DISPLAY(char* string, int linenum, int column)

A macro that calls the _forth function:

void StringToDisplay(char* string, uint stringPage, int linenum, int column)

The macro supplies the parameter stringPage = the current page, and sets the upper byte of the page = 0xFF to signal the routine that the string is a null-terminated "C-style" string. The routine moves the contents of the counted string specified by string to the location in DisplayBuffer() starting at the specified character number 'column' on the specified line number 'linenum'. Confines the string to the specified line in Display Buffer by clamping the number of characters moved to a maximum equal to the number of character positions remaining after the specified position on the specified line. The line number 'linenum' should be less than the value returned by LinesPerDisplay(), and the character number n2 should be less than the value returned by CharsPerDisplayLine(). Does not modify the contents of the LCD display; this will occur upon the next execution of UpdateDisplayLine() or UpdateDisplay(). If a Toshiba graphics display has been declared by IsDisplay(), subtracts 0x20 from each ascii character in the string to accommodate the encoding of the Toshiba graphics controller's character ROM.

NOTE: While this macro always works properly if your application resides on a single page of memory on the QED Board, this macro cannot be used if the specified string resides on a memory page that is different from the page of the calling routine. If the string resides on a different page from the calling function, use the function StringToDisplay() and pass it the proper string page, remembering to set the upper byte of the page = 0xFF to signal that the string is null-terminated.

Type: macro; Calls function: StringToDisplay
Forth name: $>DISPLAY
Header file: intrface.h

 
SWAPARRAYS()

void SWAPARRAYS(FORTH_ARRAY* array1_ptr, FORTH_ARRAY* array2_ptr)

Interchanges the contents of the parameter fields of the two specified arrays and leaves the heap undisturbed, thus rapidly swapping the two arrays.

See the FORTH_ARRAY glossary entry for a description of how to define an array and its corresponding array_ptr.

See also FORTH_ARRAY, DIM(), ARRAYFETCH() and ARRAYSTORE().

Type: macro
Related Forth function: SWAP.ARRAYS
Header file: array.h

 
SwapArrays()

void SwapArrays(FORTH_ARRAY* array1_ptr, uint pfa_page, FORTH_ARRAY* array2_ptr, uint pfa_page, )

A subsidiary function called by the recommended macro SWAPARRAYS(); see SWAPARRAYS().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: SWAP.ARRAYS
Header file: array.h

 
SWI_ID

SWI_ID

A constant that returns the interrupt identity code for the software interrupt (SWI). Used as an argument for ATTACH().

Type: constant
Related Forth function: SWI.ID
Header file: interupt.h

 
SysAbort()

void SysAbort(void)

The default abort routine called by Abort() if the flag in CustomAbort is false. Clears the data and return stacks, and sets the page to the default page (0). If an autostart vector has been installed [see Autostart() and PriorityAutostart()], SysAbort() executes the specified routine; otherwise it executes QUIT which sets the execution mode and enters the QED-Forth monitor. If the stack pointers do not point to common RAM, a COLD restart is initiated.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: (ABORT)
Header file: qedsys.h

 
TASK

TASK

A structure typedef that names and allocated a 1 Kbyte TASK structure in common RAM. In other words, TASK is used to name and locate a new task. To declare a new task named AnyTask, use the statement:

TASK AnyTask;

See the glossary entries for BUILD_C_TASK() and ACTIVATE() for a discussion of how to build and activate the new task; see also FORTH_TASK.

Type: typedef
Related Forth function: TASK:
Header file: user.h

 
TASKBASE

TASKBASE

A pointer to the current task's TASK structure which holds the task's USER_AREA structure and its task-private stacks and buffers. The USER_AREA is a structure defined in the user.h file that contains task-private operating system pointers and variables. Each task in a multitasking application has a unique 1 Kbyte TASK area named and allocated by the TASK statement, and the multitasker periodically updates the contents of UP (the User Pointer) to point to the current user area. TASKBASE is a macro defined as:

((TASK *) *UP)

In other words, TASKBASE returns the contents of UP, and TASKBASE is cast as a pointer to the TASK structure. The base address returned by TASKBASE is also referred to as the "task identifier" or "task id"; it is the address in common memory used to identify a particular task. It is passed as a parameter to BUILD_C_TASK() and ACTIVATE().

NOTE: before building the tasks in a multitasked application, the current value returned by TASKBASE should be stored into the NEXT_TASK user variable to effectively empty the task loop and kill any extraneous tasks that may be running. This can be accomplished by executing the statement:

NEXT_TASK = TASKBASE;

before invoking BUILD_C_TASK(). An example of this technique is presented in the "Turnkeyed Application Program" in the QED "Getting Started" book.

Type: macro
Related Forth function: STATUS
Header file: user.h

 
THIS_PAGE

THIS_PAGE

A macro that returns the contents of the PAGE_LATCH which indicates the current page. THIS_PAGE is equivalent to:

* PAGE_LATCH

In general, the PAGE_LATCH may be read but not written to by application programs; only routines that are located in common memory (addresses above 0x8000) are allowed to write to the PAGE_LATCH.

Type: macro
Related Forth function: THIS.PAGE
Header file: types.h

 
TIB

TIB

A macro that returns the 16-bit start address of the Terminal Input Buffer. The default size of the terminal input buffer is 96 bytes; it is used by the QED-Forth interpreter. If Forth is not running in a given task and if high-level Forth serial I/O routines such as EXPECT, QUERY and INTERPRET are not being executed, a C application may use the TIB as a task-private buffer.

Type: macro
Related Forth function: TIB
Header file: user.h

 
TIMER_OVERFLOW_ID

TIMER_OVERFLOW_ID

Returns the interrupt identity code for the free-running timer overflow interrupt. Used as an argument for ATTACH().

Type: constant
Related Forth function: TIMER.OVERFLOW.ID
Header file: interupt.h

 
TIMESLICE_COUNT

TIMESLICE_COUNT

Returns the 32-bit count of the number of clock ticks on the timeslicer clock. The count is set to zero by InitElapsedTime(), and the period of the clock is set by ChangeTaskerPeriod(); the default is 5 milliseconds (ms). To determine the elapsed time between two events in units of ms, simply subtract the corresponding counts and multiply by the number of milliseconds per count. The following example calculates the elapsed time and stores it in the variable elapsed_ms:

#define  MS_PER_COUNT   5
static long  start_count, end_count, elapsed_ms;
start_count = TIMESLICE_COUNT;   // start timing
   //  now perform the actions that you want to time
end_count = TIMESLICE_COUNT;   // finish timing
elapsed_ms = (end_count  -  start_count) * MS_PER_COUNT;

See ReadElapsedSeconds() and InitElapsedTime().

Type: macro
Related Forth function: TIMESLICE.COUNT
Header file: mtasker.h

 
ToggleBits()

void ToggleBits(uchar mask, uchar address)

For each bit of mask that is set, reverses the state of the corresponding bit of the 8 bit value at addr. Disables interrupts for ten cycles (2.5 microseconds) to ensure an uninterrupted read/modify/write operation.

See also PIAToggleBits().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: TOGGLE.BITS
Header file: xmem.h

 
ToFlash()

int ToFlash(xaddr source, xaddr dest, uint numBytes)

Transfers num bytes (0 ≤ num ≤ 65,535) starting at the specified source extended address, to the specified destination extended address in flash. The source may be anywhere in memory; it may even be in the flash which is being programmed. The destination must be in flash. Returns a flag equal to -1 if the programming was successful, or 0 if the programming failed. Reasons for failure include improper DIP switch settings, or a destination that is not in a programmable page in flash memory. Recall that, on a QED-Flash Board, DIP switches number 2, 3, and 4 must be ON to allow writes to the flash. (If any locations in the flash are programmed more than 10,000 times, the cell may wear out causing a failure flag to be returned). Assuming that the standard 256 Kbyte flash is present on the board, writable flash pages include pages 4, 5 and 6 for the standard map, and pages 1, 2, and 3 for the download memory map. Page 7 is always in flash and writable; it provides an excellent location for data or graphics storage. Page 0x0D is also writeable flash, and is often used to hold kernel extension code. This function uses the 68HC11's on-chip RAM at hex B200 to B3CF to manage the write to the flash (the real-time clock and C/Forth interrupt stack reserve the bytes at B3D0 to B3FF). The remaining on-chip RAM at B000 to B1FF remains available to the user.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: TO.FLASH
Header file: flash.h

 
ToHeap()

int ToHeap(xaddr xhandle)

If xhandle is a valid 32-bit handle (pointer to a pointer) in the current heap, the heap item associated with the xhandle is returned to the heap (de-allocated), the heap is compacted, and a true flag is returned. If xhandle is not a valid handle in the current heap, no action is taken and a false flag is returned. ToHeap() is automatically invoked by DELETED().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: TO.HEAP
Header file: heap.h

 
TO_XADDR()

xaddr TO_XADDR(uint address, int page)

This C macro combines the specified 16-bit address and page into a single 32-bit extended address. It is present in \fabius\include\mosaic\types.h starting with V1.2 of the types.h file.

Type: macro
Header file: types.h

 
TRAILING_ZEROS

TRAILING_ZEROS

A user variable that contains a flag. If the flag is false, trailing zeroes are not printed when a floating point number is displayed in fixed or floating format by FPtoString() and PrintFP(). If true, trailing zeros are displayed.

See also FPtoString(), PrintFP(), FIXED() and FLOATING().

Type: macro
Related Forth function: TRAILING.ZEROS
Header file: numbers.h

 
TransferHeapItem()

xaddr TransferHeapItem(xaddr xhandle, xaddr HeapEnd)

Copies the heap item specified by xhandle in the current heap into the heap whose CURRENT_HEAP is equal to HeapEnd. If the operation is successful, returns the 32-bit handle of the new heap item; if unsuccessful, does nothing and returns zero. To copy a heap item within a single heap, see DupHeapItem().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: TRANSFER.HEAP.ITEM
Header file: heap.h

 
TRANSMITTING

TRANSMITTING

A system variable that is true (non-zero) if the secondary serial port (serial2) is in the process of transmitting a character. If the serial2 transmitter is active, the TRANSMITTING flag stays true until the serial2 output buffer is empty. The serial2 port is supported by QED-Forth's software UART using hardware pins PA3 (input) and PA4 (output).

Type: macro
Related Forth function: TRANSMITTING
Header file: comm.h

 
TRUE

TRUE

A constant equal to 1.

Type: constant
Related Forth function: TRUE
Header file: utility.h

 
TryToFSend()

int TryToFSend(float message, float * mailboxAddr, uint mailboxPage)

A subsidiary Forth function that is called by the recommended macro TRY_TO_FSEND(); see TRY_TO_FSEND().

Type: Forth function
Forth name: ?SEND
Header file: mtasker.h

 
TryToGet()

int TryToGet(xaddr * resourceAddr, uint resourcePage)

This function performs the actions of the macro TRY_TO_GET(); the macro version is recommended. The function expects to be passed the parameter resourcePage, which must equal 0 for programs coded in C.

See also TRY_TO_GET().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: ?GET
Header file: mtasker.h

 
TryToSend()

int TryToSend(long message, long * mailboxAddr, uint mailboxPage)

A subsidiary Forth function that is called by the macro TRY_TO_SEND(); see TRY_TO_SEND().

Type: Forth function
Forth name: ?SEND
Header file: mtasker.h

 
TRY_TO_FSEND()

int TRY_TO_FSEND(float message, float * mailboxAddr)

If the mailbox with the specified mailboxAddress is empty (i.e., contains a floating point zero), this routine stores the 32-bit floating point "message" in mailboxAddr and returns a flag = -1. If xmailbox is not empty, this routine returns a flag = 0 and does not store the message. Does not execute Pause(). The message can be any 32-bit floating point quantity except 0; use TRY_TO_SEND to send a non-floating-point value as a message. To ensure that the state of the mailbox is correctly determined, TRY_TO_FSEND() disables interrupts for 16 to 50 cycles (4 to 12.5 microseconds).

See also FSEND(), FRECEIVE(), and MAILBOX.

Type: macro
Related Forth function: ?SEND
Header file: mtasker.h

 
TRY_TO_GET()

int TRY_TO_GET(xaddr * resourceAddr)

Checks the resource variable resourceAddr. If the resource is available (i.e., if it contains 0\0 or the current task's user base address), TRY_TO_GET() claims the resource by storing the current task's 32-bit base address in resourceAddr, and returns a flag equal to -1. Otherwise, TRY_TO_GET() returns a false (0) flag. Does not execute Pause(). To ensure that the state of the resource is correctly determined, TRY_TO_GET() disables interrupts for 27 to 57 cycles (6.75 to 14.25 microseconds).

See also GET(), RELEASE(), and RESOURCE.

Type: macro; Related function: TryToGet()
Header file: mtasker.h

 
TRY_TO_SEND()

int TRY_TO_SEND(long message, long * mailboxAddr)

If the mailbox with the specified mailboxAddress is empty (ie., contains a 32-bit 0 value), this routine stores the 32-bit message in mailboxAddr and returns a flag = -1. If xmailbox is not empty, this routine returns a flag = 0 and does not store the message. Does not execute Pause(). The message can be any 32-bit quantity except 0; use TRY_TO_FSEND to send a floating point value as a message. For example, the message can be an array address returned by ARRAYMEMBER() that points to a block of data. To ensure that the state of the mailbox is correctly determined, TRY_TO_SEND() disables interrupts for 16 to 50 cycles (4 to 12.5 microseconds).

See also SEND(), RECEIVE(), and MAILBOX.

Type: macro
Related Forth function: ?SEND
Header file: mtasker.h

 
TWO_INTS

TWO_INTS

A union typedef that provides a way of converting two 16-bit integers into a 32-bit long, or vis versa. The definition is:

typedef union    {   ulong int32;
      struct    {    int   msInt;
            int   lsInt;
         } twoNums;
   } TWO_INTS;

For example, the following code splits a 32-bit result in longvar into two 16-bit integers in lower16bits and upper16bits:

ulong longvar;
int lower16bits, upper16bits;   // we want to set these
TWO_INTS temporary;   // allocate union to convert type
temporary.int32 = longvar;
lower16bits = temporary.twoNums.lsInt;
lower16bits = temporary.twoNums.msInt;

See the source code in the TYPES.H file.

Type: typedef
Header file: types.h

 
UABORT

UABORT

A user variable (member of the currently active TASK.USER_AREA structure) that contains the 32-bit code field address of the user-supplied abort routine that is executed if the CUSTOM_ABORT flag is true (non-zero). If CUSTOM_ABORT is false (zero), Abort() executes the default SysAbort() routine. UABORT is initialized by COLD to contain the code field address of SysAbort().

See also Abort(), SysAbort(), and CUSTOM_ABORT.

Type: macro
Related Forth function: UABORT
Header file: user.h

 
UASK_KEY

UASK_KEY

A user variable (member of the currently active TASK.USER_AREA structure) that contains the 32-bit code field address of the AskKey() routine.

See also AskKey().

Type: macro
Related Forth function: U?KEY
Header file: user.h

 
UDEBUG

UDEBUG

A user variable (member of the currently active TASK.USER_AREA structure) that contains a flag. If the flag is non-zero then error checking and diagnostic stack printing are enabled in the interactive QED-Forth interpreter/compiler.

Type: macro
Related Forth function: DEBUG
Header file: user.h

 
UEMIT

UEMIT

A user variable (member of the currently active TASK.USER_AREA structure) that contains the 32-bit code field address of the Emit() routine.

See also Emit().

Type: macro
Related Forth function: UEMIT
Header file: user.h

 
UERROR

UERROR

A user variable (member of the currently active TASK.USER_AREA structure) that contains the 32-bit code field address of the error routine that is executed if the CUSTOM_ERROR flag is true (non-zero). If CUSTOM_ERROR is false (zero), all system errors call the default system error routine which prints descriptive error messages. UERROR is initialized by COLD to contain the code field address of a simple default error handler that prints the hexadecimal system error number and executes Abort().

See CUSTOM_ERROR and Abort(), and consult the error message appendix in the Software Manual.

Type: macro
Related Forth function: UERROR
Header file: user.h

 
UKEY

UKEY

A user variable (member of the currently active TASK.USER_AREA structure) that contains the 32-bit code field address of the Key() routine.

See also Key().

Type: macro
Related Forth function: UKEY
Header file: user.h

 
UP

UP

A pointer to TASKBASE, which in turn is a pointer to the base of the current task's user area. UP returns an address whose contents is the TASKBASE address of the current task.

See also TASKBASE.

Type: macro
Related Forth function: UP
Header file: user.h

 
UPAD

UPAD

User variable (member of the currently active TASK.USER_AREA structure) that holds the 32-bit base address of PAD.

See also PAD.

Type: macro
Related Forth function: UPAD
Header file: user.h

 
UpdateDisplay()

void UpdateDisplay(void)

Writes the contents of the DisplayBuffer() to the LCD display. When finished, leaves the display cursor pointing at the first position in the first line. For character displays, the cursor is turned off during the write to the display and is restored to its prior state after the update is complete, thus avoiding "flickering" of the cursor. Intermittently disables interrupts for 28 cycles (7 µsec) per byte to implement clock stretching.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: UPDATE.DISPLAY
Header file: intrface.h

 
UpdateDisplayLine()

void UpdateDisplayLine(int lineNum)

Writes the contents of the specified lineNum in the DisplayBuffer() to the LCD display. lineNum is zero-based, and is clamped to a maximum of 1 less than the value returned by LinesPerDisplay(). UpdateDisplayLine() writes CharsPerDisplayLine() characters to the display. When finished, leaves the display cursor pointing at the first position in the line following lineNum. For character displays, the cursor is blanked during the write to the display and is restored to its prior state after the update is complete, thus avoiding "flickering" of the cursor. The lineNum follows the same rules explained in the description of BufferPosition(): for a graphics-style display the lineNum is interpreted differently depending on whether the display is being used in "text mode" or "graphics mode". In text mode, lineNum corresponds to the character line number; in graphics mode, lineNum corresponds to the pixel line number which is 8 times the character line number. Intermittently disables interrupts for 28 cycles (7 µsec) per byte to implement clock stretching.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: UPDATE.DISPLAY.LINE
Header file: intrface.h

 
UpdateDisplayRam()

void UpdateDisplayRam(void)

Writes the contents of the Display Buffer to the LCD display. Unlike the related UpdateDisplay() function, UpdateDisplayRam() does NOT put the cursor and the display ram pointer to the "home position" at the upper left corner before writing to the display. When used with graphics displays, this function can be called after IsDisplayAddress() to write display data into "off-screen" display RAM, and then data can be scrolled onto the screen by changing the display's "home address". When finished, UpdateDisplayRam() leaves the display cursor and the display ram pointer at the first position in the first line. Intermittently disables interrupts for 28 cycles (7 µsec) per byte to implement clock stretching.

See also IsDisplayAddress() and UpdateDisplay().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: (UPDATE.DISPLAY)
Header file: intrface.h

 
USER_AREA

USER_AREA

A struct typedef that declares the user area structure containing task-specific variables and pointers. In turn, the USER_AREA structure is the first element in the TASK structure. For a full definition of this structure, see the source code in the user.h file.

See also TASK.

Type: typedef
Header file: user.h

 
UseSerial1()

void UseSerial1(void)

Installs the primary serial port (serial1) as the serial link called by Emit(), AskKey(), and Key() used by the default task that runs at startup. The serial1 port is associated with the 68HC11's on-chip hardware UART. Stores the code address of Key1() in UKEY, the code address of AskKey1() in UASK_KEY, and the code address of Emit1() in UEMIT. Thus the vectored routines Key(), AskKey(), and Emit() will automatically execute the serial1 routines Key1(), AskKey1(), and Emit1() respectively. Initializes the resource variable SERIAL1_RESOURCE to zero, and initializes the resource variable associated with the prior serial channel in use (typically either SERIAL1_RESOURCE or SERIAL2_RESOURCE) to zero. Does not disable the serial2 port.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: USE.SERIAL1
Header file: comm.h

 
UseSerial2()

void UseSerial2()

Installs the secondary serial port (serial2) as the serial link called by Emit(), AskKey(), and Key() used by the default task that runs at startup. Calls InitSerial2() to initialize the serial2 port, and globally enables interrupts to allow the serial2 port to operate. The serial2 port is supported by QED-Forth's software UART using hardware pins PA3 (input) and PA4 (output). UseSerial2() stores the code address of Key2() in UKEY, the code address of AskKey2() in UASK_KEY, and the code address of Emit2() in UEMIT. Thus the vectored routines Key(), AskKey(), and Emit() will automatically execute the serial1 routines Key2(), AskKey2(), and Emit2() respectively. Initializes the resource variable SERIAL2_RESOURCE to zero, and initializes the resource variable associated with the prior serial channel in use (typically either SERIAL1_RESOURCE or SERIAL2_RESOURCE) to zero. Does not disable the serial1 port.

See also Baud2() and Serial2AtStartup().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: USE.SERIAL2
Header file: comm.h

 
UTIB

UTIB

User variable (member of the currently active TASK.USER_AREA structure) that holds the 32-bit base address of the Terminal Input Buffer (TIB).

See also TIB.

Type: macro
Related Forth function: UTIB
Header file: user.h

 
Warm()

void Warm(void)

Restarts the QED-Forth system and clears the data and return stacks and executes Abort(). Unlike Cold(), Warm() does not initialize all of the user variables to their default values. Note that this function can be called interactively from the terminal by typing:

WARM

Calling WARM interactively before downloading a program is good practice, as it aborts any active multitasking program that may be in progress.

See also COLD.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: WARM
Header file: qedsys.h

 
WATCH_DATE

WATCH_DATE

A structure element whose contents were updated by the most recent execution of ReadWatch(). When used as the right-hand side of an assignment statement, WATCH_DATE returns the current date (1…31). (Of course, this requires that a properly set battery-operated real-time clock is installed on the QED Board.) See the glossary entry for ReadWatch() for an example of use.

Type: macro
Header file: watch.h

 
WATCH_DAY

WATCH_DAY

A structure element whose contents were updated by the most recent execution of ReadWatch(). When used as the right-hand side of an assignment statement, WATCH_DAY returns the current day (1…7). (Of course, this requires that a properly set battery-operated real-time clock is installed on the QED Board.) See the glossary entry for ReadWatch() for an example of use.

Type: macro
Header file: watch.h

 
WATCH_HOUR

WATCH_HOUR

A structure element whose contents were updated by the most recent execution of ReadWatch(). When used as the right-hand side of an assignment statement, WATCH_HOUR returns the current hour (0…23). (Of course, this requires that a properly set battery-operated real-time clock is installed on the QED Board.) See the glossary entry for ReadWatch() for an example of use.

Type: macro
Header file: watch.h

 
WATCH_HUNDREDTH_SECONDS

WATCH_HUNDREDTH_SECONDS

A structure element whose contents were updated by the most recent execution of ReadWatch(). When used as the right-hand side of an assignment statement, WATCH_HUNDREDTH_SECONDS returns the current hundredth-seconds (0…99) since the last integral second. (Of course, this requires that a properly set battery-operated real-time clock is installed on the QED Board.) See the glossary entry for ReadWatch() for an example of use.

Type: macro
Header file: watch.h

 
WATCH_MINUTE

WATCH_MINUTE

A structure element whose contents were updated by the most recent execution of ReadWatch(). When used as the right-hand side of an assignment statement, WATCH_MINUTE returns the current minute (0…59). (Of course, this requires that a properly set battery-operated real-time clock is installed on the QED Board.) See the glossary entry for ReadWatch() for an example of use.

Type: macro
Header file: watch.h

 
WATCH_MONTH

WATCH_MONTH

A structure element whose contents were updated by the most recent execution of ReadWatch(). When used as the right-hand side of an assignment statement, WATCH_MONTH returns the current month (1…12). (Of course, this requires that a properly set battery-operated real-time clock is installed on the QED Board.) See the glossary entry for ReadWatch() for an example of use.

Type: macro
Header file: watch.h

 
watch_results

watch_results

This structure located at 0xB3F8 is an instance of the CALENDAR_TIME typedef that defines the bytes that hold the results of a read of the battery-backed real-time clock. A set of macros (WATCH_SECONDS, WATCH_MINUTES, WATCH_HOUR, etc.) have been pre-defined to facilitate easy access to the watch results; see the glossary entry for ReadWatch().

Type: structure instance
Header file: watch.h

 
WATCH_SECONDS

WATCH_SECONDS

A structure element whose contents were updated by the most recent execution of ReadWatch(). When used as the right-hand side of an assignment statement, WATCH_SECONDS returns the current seconds (0…59). (Of course, this requires that a properly set battery-operated real-time clock is installed on the QED Board.) See the glossary entry for ReadWatch() for an example of use.

Type: macro
Header file: watch.h

 
WATCH_YEAR

WATCH_YEAR

A structure element whose contents were updated by the most recent execution of ReadWatch(). When used as the right-hand side of an assignment statement, WATCH_YEAR returns the current year (0…99). (Of course, this requires that a properly set battery-operated real-time clock is installed on the QED Board.) See the glossary entry for ReadWatch() for an example of use.

Type: macro
Header file: watch.h

 
WhichMap()

int WhichMap(void)

Returns a 0 if the current memory map is the "standard map", and returns a 1 if the current map is the "download map" on flash-carrying boards. If the standard map is active, pages 4, 5, and 6 are addressed in the S1 flash, and pages 1, 2, and 3 are addressed in the S2 RAM. If the download map is active, pages 4, 5, and 6 are addressed in the S2 RAM, and pages 1, 2, and 3 are addressed in the S1 flash memory. This routine allows a user or program to verify which map is currently being used. After a "factory cleanup" operation, the standard map is active.

See also StandardMap() and DownloadMap().

Type: _forth function
Forth name: WHICH.MAP
Header file: flash.h

 
XaddrDifference()

long XaddrDifference(xaddr addr1, xaddr addr2)

Subtracts addr2 from addr1 to yield the signed double number result d. There is an unchecked error if one of the xaddresses is in common memory (addr ≥ 0x8000) and the other is in paged memory (addr ≤ 0x7FFF on any page). Note that in paged memory, the address immediately following 0x7FFF is address 0x0000 on the following page.

Type: _forth function
Forth name: X1-X2>D
Header file: xmem.h

 
XADDR_TO_ADDR()

uint XADDR_TO_ADDR(xaddr xaddress)

This C macro converts the specified 32-bit extended address into its constituent 16-bit address. It is present in \fabius\include\mosaic\types.h starting with V1.2 of the types.h file.

Type: macro
Header file: types.h

 
XADDR_TO_PAGE()

int XADDR_TO_PAGE( xaddr xaddress)

This C macro converts the specified 32-bit extended address into its constituent page. It is present in \fabius\include\mosaic\types.h starting with V1.2 of the types.h file.

Type: macro
Header file: types.h

 
XIRQ_ID

XIRQ_ID

A constant that returns the interrupt identity code for the external non-maskable interrupt called XIRQ. Used as an argument for ATTACH(). The XIRQ interrupt is activated by an active-low signal on the XIRQ input pin and is enabled by the X bit in the condition code register.

Type: constant
Related Forth function: XIRQ.ID
Header file: interupt.h

 
_peekTerminal()

uchar _peekTerminal( void)

A serial I/O primitive called by printf() and other C printing functions. Checks the current serial input port. If an input character is present, adds it to a 10-byte input buffer located near the top of the 1K on-chip RAM. _peekTerminal() returns the number of pending characters in the input buffer. Use _readTerminal to access the contents of the input buffer.

See also AskKey(), _readChar() and _writeChar().

Type: C function
Header file: comm.h

 
_readChar()

uchar _readChar( void)

A serial I/O primitive called by printf() and other C printing functions. Calls _readTerminal to retrieve the latest input character from the current serial port, and then calls _writeChar to echo the character. Returns the input character. Does not execute Pause() while waiting for the input character.

See also Key(), _readTerminal(), _peekTerminal() and _writeChar().

Type: C function
Header file: comm.h

 
_readTerminal()

uchar _readTerminal( void)

A serial I/O primitive called by printf() and other C printing functions. Removes one character from the input buffer associated with the current serial input port [see _peekTerminal()] and returns the character. If the input buffer is empty, waits until the next input character appears.

See also _readChar() and _writeChar().

Type: C function
Header file: comm.h

 
_writeChar()

void _writeChar( uchar chr)

A serial I/O primitive called by printf() and other C printing functions. Writes the specified character chr to the current serial port. If chr is a linefeed (ascii 10), writes a carriage return (ascii 13) to the serial port before writing the linefeed. Does not execute Pause().

See also Emit(), _peekTerminal(), _readChar() and _writeTerminal().

Type: C function
Header file: comm.h

 
_Q

_Q

A macro whose default definition is simply:

_pascal

Used in front of a function declaration or definition, it instructs the C compiler to label the function as a pascal type and to use the pascal calling convention (push leftmost parameter first, pass rightmost parameter in registers). This macro is used to enable the interactive debugging features offered by the QED Board. Functions declared with the _Q specifier may be individually executed in an interactive fashion from your terminal; this greatly speeds debugging. Without the interactive capability, a compiled C program can only execute one function (main), and if you want to test individual functions in the program you must continually recode main to call the function and then recompile the program. Using the _Q debugging feature offers a simpler alternative. Instead of having to revector the "main" routine to execute the function of interest, you can interactively execute each function in the program with a variety of input parameters of your choice. This lets you test each function to isolate bugs. There is no significant performance penalty for using the _Q specifier; in fact, the _pascal functions are more memory-efficient than the standard functions (because the "stack cleanup" code is compiled in the function itself, rather than in each calling function.)

Example of use:

_Q float Square( float input)
{   return (input * input);
}

After this function is compiled in a program and the .TXT download file is sent to the QED Board, you can test the function with any input. For example, to test the Square() function with an input of 3.5, simply execute from the terminal

Square(  float  3.5)

Note that there is no space between the "e" and the "(", and there must be at least one space between the "(" and the next character. The "float" keyword is required to tell the interpreter that the input parameter is a floating point number. The QED Board will respond with a summary of the return value in several formats:

Rtn: 16708    0  =0x41440000=fp:  12.25

We know that this routine returns a floating point number, so we see that the return value is 12.25, which is the correct answer. For more details, see the "Interactive Debugging Routines" section of this glossary, as well as the debugging chapter of the "Getting Started" booklet.

Type: macro
Header file: types.h

 
This page is about: Glossary Descriptions of C Functions, Customized C Library – Presents detailed glossary descriptions of each function in the customized V4 C library for Mosaic controller boards based on the 68HC11 microcontroller.
 
 
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